Awareness, prevalence, treatment, and control of hypertension in Western Nepal

Dinesh Neupane, Archana Shrestha, Shiva Raj Mishra, Joakim Bloch, Bo Christensen, Craig S. McLachlan, Arjun Karki, Per Kallestrup

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

BACKGROUND Hypertension is a significant contributor to cardiovascular and renal diseases. In low-income settings like Nepal, there are few epidemiological studies assessing hypertension burden. Thus, the purpose was to determine prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension in Nepal. METHODS A cross-sectional survey was conducted in semi-urban area of western Nepal among randomly selected participants, aged between 25 and 65 years. Systolic blood pressure (BP) ≥140 mm Hg and/or diastolic BP of ≥90 mm Hg and/or taking current antihypertensive medicine defined as hypertension. RESULTS Study included 2,815 participants, 1,844 were women. The age- and sex-adjusted prevalence of hypertension was 28%. Of the study participants, 17% were daily smokers, 12% harmful alcohol drinkers, 90% consuming low levels of fruit and/or vegetable, and 7% reported low physical activity. Among hypertensive participants, 46% were aware of their preexisting hypertension, 31% were on hypertensive medication, and 15% met BP control targets. Increasing age (odds ratio [OR]: 1.07, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.06; 1.08), higher body mass index (OR: 1.09, 95% CI: 1.06; 1.12), men (OR: 1.63, 95% CI: 1.25; 2.14), harmful alcohol intake (Or: 2.46; 95% CI: 1.73; 3.51), family history of hypertension (OR: 1.42; 95% CI: 1.14; 1.76), and diabetes (OR: 2.08, 95% CI: 1.30; 3.33) were independently associated with hypertension. CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of hypertension was found high in western Nepal. A number of risk factors were identified as possible drivers of this burden. Thus, there is an urgent need to address modifiable risk factors in semi-urban settings of western Nepal.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)907-913
Number of pages7
JournalAmerican Journal of Hypertension
Volume30
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 1 2017
Externally publishedYes

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Nepal
Hypertension
Confidence Intervals
Odds Ratio
Blood Pressure
Therapeutics
Alcohols
Vegetables
Antihypertensive Agents
Epidemiologic Studies
Fruit
Body Mass Index
Cardiovascular Diseases
Cross-Sectional Studies
Medicine
Exercise
Kidney

Keywords

  • Blood pressure
  • Cross-sectional studies
  • Epidemiology
  • Hypertension
  • Nepal
  • Prevalence
  • Risk factors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine

Cite this

Neupane, D., Shrestha, A., Mishra, S. R., Bloch, J., Christensen, B., McLachlan, C. S., ... Kallestrup, P. (2017). Awareness, prevalence, treatment, and control of hypertension in Western Nepal. American Journal of Hypertension, 30(9), 907-913. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajh/hpx074

Awareness, prevalence, treatment, and control of hypertension in Western Nepal. / Neupane, Dinesh; Shrestha, Archana; Mishra, Shiva Raj; Bloch, Joakim; Christensen, Bo; McLachlan, Craig S.; Karki, Arjun; Kallestrup, Per.

In: American Journal of Hypertension, Vol. 30, No. 9, 01.09.2017, p. 907-913.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Neupane, D, Shrestha, A, Mishra, SR, Bloch, J, Christensen, B, McLachlan, CS, Karki, A & Kallestrup, P 2017, 'Awareness, prevalence, treatment, and control of hypertension in Western Nepal', American Journal of Hypertension, vol. 30, no. 9, pp. 907-913. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajh/hpx074
Neupane, Dinesh ; Shrestha, Archana ; Mishra, Shiva Raj ; Bloch, Joakim ; Christensen, Bo ; McLachlan, Craig S. ; Karki, Arjun ; Kallestrup, Per. / Awareness, prevalence, treatment, and control of hypertension in Western Nepal. In: American Journal of Hypertension. 2017 ; Vol. 30, No. 9. pp. 907-913.
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abstract = "BACKGROUND Hypertension is a significant contributor to cardiovascular and renal diseases. In low-income settings like Nepal, there are few epidemiological studies assessing hypertension burden. Thus, the purpose was to determine prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension in Nepal. METHODS A cross-sectional survey was conducted in semi-urban area of western Nepal among randomly selected participants, aged between 25 and 65 years. Systolic blood pressure (BP) ≥140 mm Hg and/or diastolic BP of ≥90 mm Hg and/or taking current antihypertensive medicine defined as hypertension. RESULTS Study included 2,815 participants, 1,844 were women. The age- and sex-adjusted prevalence of hypertension was 28{\%}. Of the study participants, 17{\%} were daily smokers, 12{\%} harmful alcohol drinkers, 90{\%} consuming low levels of fruit and/or vegetable, and 7{\%} reported low physical activity. Among hypertensive participants, 46{\%} were aware of their preexisting hypertension, 31{\%} were on hypertensive medication, and 15{\%} met BP control targets. Increasing age (odds ratio [OR]: 1.07, 95{\%} confidence interval [CI]: 1.06; 1.08), higher body mass index (OR: 1.09, 95{\%} CI: 1.06; 1.12), men (OR: 1.63, 95{\%} CI: 1.25; 2.14), harmful alcohol intake (Or: 2.46; 95{\%} CI: 1.73; 3.51), family history of hypertension (OR: 1.42; 95{\%} CI: 1.14; 1.76), and diabetes (OR: 2.08, 95{\%} CI: 1.30; 3.33) were independently associated with hypertension. CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of hypertension was found high in western Nepal. A number of risk factors were identified as possible drivers of this burden. Thus, there is an urgent need to address modifiable risk factors in semi-urban settings of western Nepal.",
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AU - Shrestha, Archana

AU - Mishra, Shiva Raj

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AU - Christensen, Bo

AU - McLachlan, Craig S.

AU - Karki, Arjun

AU - Kallestrup, Per

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N2 - BACKGROUND Hypertension is a significant contributor to cardiovascular and renal diseases. In low-income settings like Nepal, there are few epidemiological studies assessing hypertension burden. Thus, the purpose was to determine prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension in Nepal. METHODS A cross-sectional survey was conducted in semi-urban area of western Nepal among randomly selected participants, aged between 25 and 65 years. Systolic blood pressure (BP) ≥140 mm Hg and/or diastolic BP of ≥90 mm Hg and/or taking current antihypertensive medicine defined as hypertension. RESULTS Study included 2,815 participants, 1,844 were women. The age- and sex-adjusted prevalence of hypertension was 28%. Of the study participants, 17% were daily smokers, 12% harmful alcohol drinkers, 90% consuming low levels of fruit and/or vegetable, and 7% reported low physical activity. Among hypertensive participants, 46% were aware of their preexisting hypertension, 31% were on hypertensive medication, and 15% met BP control targets. Increasing age (odds ratio [OR]: 1.07, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.06; 1.08), higher body mass index (OR: 1.09, 95% CI: 1.06; 1.12), men (OR: 1.63, 95% CI: 1.25; 2.14), harmful alcohol intake (Or: 2.46; 95% CI: 1.73; 3.51), family history of hypertension (OR: 1.42; 95% CI: 1.14; 1.76), and diabetes (OR: 2.08, 95% CI: 1.30; 3.33) were independently associated with hypertension. CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of hypertension was found high in western Nepal. A number of risk factors were identified as possible drivers of this burden. Thus, there is an urgent need to address modifiable risk factors in semi-urban settings of western Nepal.

AB - BACKGROUND Hypertension is a significant contributor to cardiovascular and renal diseases. In low-income settings like Nepal, there are few epidemiological studies assessing hypertension burden. Thus, the purpose was to determine prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension in Nepal. METHODS A cross-sectional survey was conducted in semi-urban area of western Nepal among randomly selected participants, aged between 25 and 65 years. Systolic blood pressure (BP) ≥140 mm Hg and/or diastolic BP of ≥90 mm Hg and/or taking current antihypertensive medicine defined as hypertension. RESULTS Study included 2,815 participants, 1,844 were women. The age- and sex-adjusted prevalence of hypertension was 28%. Of the study participants, 17% were daily smokers, 12% harmful alcohol drinkers, 90% consuming low levels of fruit and/or vegetable, and 7% reported low physical activity. Among hypertensive participants, 46% were aware of their preexisting hypertension, 31% were on hypertensive medication, and 15% met BP control targets. Increasing age (odds ratio [OR]: 1.07, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.06; 1.08), higher body mass index (OR: 1.09, 95% CI: 1.06; 1.12), men (OR: 1.63, 95% CI: 1.25; 2.14), harmful alcohol intake (Or: 2.46; 95% CI: 1.73; 3.51), family history of hypertension (OR: 1.42; 95% CI: 1.14; 1.76), and diabetes (OR: 2.08, 95% CI: 1.30; 3.33) were independently associated with hypertension. CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of hypertension was found high in western Nepal. A number of risk factors were identified as possible drivers of this burden. Thus, there is an urgent need to address modifiable risk factors in semi-urban settings of western Nepal.

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