Between January 1987 and January 1997, 69 eligible patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) in either second (CR2) or third (CR3) complete remission (CR2 = 60, CR3 = 9) underwent 4-hydroperoxycyclophosphamide-purged autologous bone marrow transplantation (BMT) at the Johns Hopkins Oncology Center. The patients' median age was 27 years (range 1-62) and all received busulphan and cyclophosphamide as their preparative regimen. The probability of event-free survival (EFS) at 5 years was 30% [95% Confidence Interval (CI): 19-42%] for CR2 patients and 22% (3-51%) for those in CR3, with a median follow up of 8 years in the surviving group. The median time to an absolute neutrophil count of 0.5 × 109/l was 45 d (range 20-185). Relapse was the major cause of failure with a relapse rate of 55% in CR2 and 44% in CR3, while the non-relapse, transplant-related mortality rate was 15% in CR2 and 33% in CR3. In univariate analysis, patient age, cytogenetics, white blood cell count at presentation, CR1 duration and the sensitivity of clonogeneic leukaemia (CFU-L) in the graft to 4HC were all prognostic for EFS. Using each of these significant variables in multivariate modelling, patient age and sensitivity of CFU-L to 4HC were determined to be predictors of EFS. 4HC-purged autologous BMT produced results similar to allogeneic BMT for AML patients beyond first remission.
- Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML)
- Autologous BMT
ASJC Scopus subject areas