Insulin secretion rates are greater after oral glucose than after parenteral administration of an equivalent glucose load. This augmented β- cell secretory response to an oral glucose load results from the release of mainly two gut hormones: gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon- like peptide-1, which potentiate glucose-induced insulin secretion. Because of their insulinotropic action, their abnormal secretion may be involved in the pathogenesis of the hyperinsulinemia of childhood obesity. In this study, we used the hyperglycemic clamp with a small oral glucose load to assess the effect of childhood obesity on GIP response in seven prepubertal lean and 11 prepubertal obese children and in 14 lean adolescents and 10 obese adolescents. Plasma glucose was acutely raised to 11 mM by infusing i.v. glucose and kept at this concentration for 180 min. Each subject ingested oral glucose (30 g) at 120 min, and the glucose infusion was adjusted to maintain the plasma glucose plateau. Basal insulin and C-peptide concentrations and insulin secretion rates (calculated by the deconvolution method) were significantly greater in obese children compared with lean children (p < 0.001). Similarly, during the first 120 min of the clamp, insulin secretion rates were higher in obese than lean children. After oral glucose, plasma insulin, C-peptide, and insulin secretion rates further increased in all four groups. This incretin effect was 2-fold greater in obese versus lean adolescents (p < 0.001). Circulating plasma GIP concentrations were similar at baseline in all four groups and remained unchanged during the first 120 min of the clamp. After oral glucose, plasma GIP concentrations rose sharply in all groups (p < 0.002). Of note, the rise in GIP was similar in both lean and obese children. In conclusion, under conditions of stable hyperglycemia, the ingestion of a small amount of glucose elicited equivalent GIP responses in both lean and obese children. However, despite similar GIP responses, insulin secretion was markedly augmented in obese adolescents. Thus, in juvenile obesity, excessive alimentary β-cell stimulation may be independent of the increased release of GIP.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health