Background: ATN-161 (Ac-PHSCN-NH2), an antagonist of integrin α5β1, has shown an important influence in inhibiting tumor angiogenesis and metastasis of other tumor types. However, the mechanism of action of ATN-161 and whether it can inhibit ocular neovascularization (NV) are unclear. This study investigated the role of ATN-161 in regulating ocular angiogenesis in mouse models and explored the underlying signaling pathway. Material/Methods: An oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) mouse model and a laser-induced choroidal neovascularization (CNV) mouse model were used to test integrin α5β1 expression and the effect of ATN-161 on ocular NV by immunofluorescence staining, Western blot analysis, and flat-mount analysis. The activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), matrix metalloproteinase-2/9 (MMP-2/9), and cell apoptosis were detected by immunofluorescence staining, Western blot, real-time RT-PCR, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL). The cell proliferation was detected by BrdU labeling. Results: In OIR and CNV mice, the protein expression level of integrin α5β1 increased compared with that in age-matched controls. The mice given ATN-161 had significantly reduced retinal neovascularization (RNV) and CNV. Blocking integrin α5β1 by ATN-161 strongly inhibited nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation and matrix metalloproteinase-2/9 (MMP-2/9) expression and promoted cell apoptosis, but the effect of ATN-161 on proliferation in CNV mice was indirect and required the inhibition of neovascularization. Inhibiting NF-κB activation by ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (PDTC) reduced RNV and promoted cell apoptosis in ocular NV. Conclusions: Blocking integrin α5β1 by ATN-161 reduced ocular NV by inhibiting MMP-2/MMP-9 expression and promoting the cell apoptosis of ocular NV.
- Integrin alpha5beta1
- Matrix metalloproteinases
- Neovascularization, Pathologic
- NF-kappa B
ASJC Scopus subject areas