Context: Mechanisms explaining documented associations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] deficiency with increased risks of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and venous thromboembolism may relate to adverse hemostatic and inflammatory responses. Objective: To evaluate whether 25(OH)D deficiency is associated with a prothrombotic and proinflammatory biological profile. Design: Cross-sectional analyses. Setting: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, a multicenter prospective cohort of American adults. Participants: Up to 6554 adults free of CVD. Main Outcome Measures: Ten hemostatic biomarkers (D-dimer, fibrinogen, factor VIII, plasminantiplasmin, and homocysteine [n = 6443]; von Willebrand factor, soluble tissue factor, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), total tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI), and soluble thrombomodulin [n=814]), and three inflammatory biomarkers (IL-6, C-reactive protein [n=6443], and TNF-α soluble receptor [n =3802]). Results: Among 6443 subjects (46.6% men; mean age, 62.1 years; mean body mass index, 28.3 kg/m2) of White (37.8%), Black (27.2%), Chinese (12.2%), and Hispanic (21.8%) race/ethnicity, mean 25(OH)D was 25.3 ng/mL. After multiple adjustment, 25(OH)D concentrations were associated with concentrations of IL-6 and homocysteine and also with concentrations of PAI-1 and TFPI: per 10 ng/mL decrement in 25(OH)D, 5.1% higher IL-6 (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.4-6.9; P≤ .001); 3.7% higher homocysteine (95% CI, 3.0-4.3; P≤.001); 7.0% higher PAI-1 (95% CI, 0.9 -13.6; P ≤ .025); and 2.1% higher TFPI (95% CI, 0.0-4.2; P=047), without racial/ethnic heterogeneity. No significant associations were observed for other hemostatic and inflammatory biomarkers. Conclusions: Increased inflammation as reflected by higher circulating IL-6 and increased homocysteine concentrations may represent mechanisms linking 25(OH)D deficiency to greater risks of CVD and perhaps venous thromboembolism. Low concentrations of 25(OH)D were also associated with PAI-1 and TFPI concentrations, but not with other hemostatic biomarkers.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Clinical Biochemistry
- Biochemistry, medical