Associations of refractive errors and retinal changes measured by optical coherence tomography: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Mohammad Amin Salehi, Ali Nowroozi, Mahdi Gouravani, Soheil Mohammadi, J. Fernando Arevalo

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

Studies reporting alteration in retinal thickness using optical coherence tomography (OCT) have been performed in different populations with various degrees of refractive error, producing inconsistent results. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the alterations in retinal OCT measurements in myopic and hyperopic patients compared to controls. Evaluation of different retinal layers’ thickness may have significance for developing novel approaches for preventing, diagnosing, and treating refractive errors and their complications. We searched PubMed and EMBASE to identify articles that reported OCT measurements of different retinal layers and regions, including macular, foveal, parafoveal, perifoveal, foveolar, ganglion cell complex (GCC), retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL), and ganglion cell and inner plexiform layer (GC-IPL) thickness in addition to macular volume, and optic disc area in myopes and hyperopes comparing their differences with controls. We applied either a fixed-effects or random-effects model for the meta-analysis of these differences based on the assessed heterogeneity level. Furthermore, subgroup analyses and metaregression, as well as publication bias and quality assessment, were conducted for the eligible studies. Forty-seven studies with a total of 12223 eyes, including 8600 cases and 3623 non-cases, are included in this meta-analysis. Our results showed that, in comparison to controls, highly myopic eyes had a significantly lower value for mean macular thickness, macular GCC, macular GC-IPL, parafoveal, perifoveal, foveal, foveolar, RNFL, and pRNFL thickness. Compared to controls, moderately myopic eyes showed a significantly thinner mean macular GCC layer and pRNFL. On the other hand, hyperopic eyes had significantly thicker average pRNFL than controls. Several other significant differences were also observed in various regional analyses. The findings of the current study affirm the retinal OCT measurement differences between myopic and hyperopic eyes compared to controls, emphasizing OCT measurements' advantages as potential biomarkers of ocular pathologies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalSurvey of ophthalmology
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - 2021

Keywords

  • Hyperopia
  • Meta-analysis
  • Myopia
  • Optical Coherence Tomography
  • Refractive Error
  • Retina

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology

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