Associations of family and peer experiences with masculinity attitude trajectories at the individual and group level in adolescent and young adult males

Arik V Marcell, Sorina E. Eftim, Freya L Sonenstein, Joseph H. Pleck

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Data were drawn from 845 males in the National Survey of Adolescent Males who were initially aged 15-17, and followed-up 2.5 and 4.5 years later, to their early twenties. Mixed-effects regression models (MRM) and semiparametric trajectory analyses (STA) modeled patterns of change in masculinity attitudes at the individual and group levels, guided by gender intensification theory and cognitive-developmental theory. Overall, men's masculinity attitudes became significantly less traditional between middle adolescence and early adulthood. In MRM analyses using time-varying covariates, maintaining paternal coresidence and continuing to have first sex in uncommitted heterosexual relationships were significantly associated with masculinity attitudes remaining relatively traditional. The STA modeling identified three distinct patterns of change in masculinity attitudes. A traditional-liberalizing trajectory of masculinity attitudes was most prevalent, followed by traditional-stable and nontraditional-stable trajectories. Implications for gender intensification and cognitive-developmental approaches to masculinity attitudes are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)565-587
Number of pages23
JournalMen and Masculinities
Issue number5
StatePublished - Dec 2011



  • gender development
  • growth modeling
  • masculinity attitudes
  • trajectory

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Gender Studies
  • Sociology and Political Science
  • Literature and Literary Theory
  • History

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