Associations of CD4+ T-cell count, HIV-1 RNA viral load, and antiretroviral therapy with Kaposi sarcoma risk among HIV-infected persons in the United States and Canada

for the North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design of the International Epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

BACKGROUND:: Kaposi sarcoma (KS) remains common among HIV-infected persons. To better understand KS etiology and to help target prevention efforts, we comprehensively examined a variety of CD4+ T-cell count and HIV-1 RNA viral load (VL) measures, as well as antiretroviral therapy (ART) use, to determine independent predictors of KS risk. SETTING:: North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design. METHODS:: We followed HIV-infected persons during 1996-2009 from 18 cohorts. We used time-updated Cox regression to model relationships between KS risk and recent, lagged, trajectory, and cumulative CD4 count or VL measures, as well as ART use. We used Akaike’s information criterion and global p-values to derive a final model. RESULTS:: In separate models, the relationship between each measure and KS risk was highly significant (p<0.0001). Our final mutually-adjusted model included recent CD4 count (hazard ratio [HR] for <50 vs. ≥500 cells/µL = 12.4; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 6.5-23.8), recent VL (HR for ≥100,000 vs. ≤500 copies/mL = 3.8; 95% CI: 2.0-7.3), and cumulative (time-weighted mean) VL (HR for ≥100,000 vs. ≤500 copies/mL = 2.5; 95% CI: 1.0-5.9). Each p-trend was <0.0001. After adjusting for these measures, we did not detect an independent association between ART use and KS risk. CONCLUSIONS:: Our results suggested a multifactorial etiology for KS, with early and late phases of development. The cumulative VL effect suggested that controlling HIV replication promptly after HIV diagnosis is important for KS prevention. We observed no evidence for direct anti-KS activity of ART, independent of CD4 count and VL.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalJournal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - Apr 7 2017

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Kaposi's Sarcoma
CD4 Lymphocyte Count
Viral Load
Canada
HIV-1
HIV
RNA
T-Lymphocytes
Therapeutics
Confidence Intervals
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
Research Design

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases

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Associations of CD4+ T-cell count, HIV-1 RNA viral load, and antiretroviral therapy with Kaposi sarcoma risk among HIV-infected persons in the United States and Canada. / for the North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design of the International Epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS.

In: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 07.04.2017.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

for the North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design of the International Epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS. / Associations of CD4+ T-cell count, HIV-1 RNA viral load, and antiretroviral therapy with Kaposi sarcoma risk among HIV-infected persons in the United States and Canada. In: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes. 2017.
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title = "Associations of CD4+ T-cell count, HIV-1 RNA viral load, and antiretroviral therapy with Kaposi sarcoma risk among HIV-infected persons in the United States and Canada",
abstract = "BACKGROUND:: Kaposi sarcoma (KS) remains common among HIV-infected persons. To better understand KS etiology and to help target prevention efforts, we comprehensively examined a variety of CD4+ T-cell count and HIV-1 RNA viral load (VL) measures, as well as antiretroviral therapy (ART) use, to determine independent predictors of KS risk. SETTING:: North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design. METHODS:: We followed HIV-infected persons during 1996-2009 from 18 cohorts. We used time-updated Cox regression to model relationships between KS risk and recent, lagged, trajectory, and cumulative CD4 count or VL measures, as well as ART use. We used Akaike’s information criterion and global p-values to derive a final model. RESULTS:: In separate models, the relationship between each measure and KS risk was highly significant (p<0.0001). Our final mutually-adjusted model included recent CD4 count (hazard ratio [HR] for <50 vs. ≥500 cells/µL = 12.4; 95{\%} confidence interval [CI]: 6.5-23.8), recent VL (HR for ≥100,000 vs. ≤500 copies/mL = 3.8; 95{\%} CI: 2.0-7.3), and cumulative (time-weighted mean) VL (HR for ≥100,000 vs. ≤500 copies/mL = 2.5; 95{\%} CI: 1.0-5.9). Each p-trend was <0.0001. After adjusting for these measures, we did not detect an independent association between ART use and KS risk. CONCLUSIONS:: Our results suggested a multifactorial etiology for KS, with early and late phases of development. The cumulative VL effect suggested that controlling HIV replication promptly after HIV diagnosis is important for KS prevention. We observed no evidence for direct anti-KS activity of ART, independent of CD4 count and VL.",
author = "{for the North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design of the International Epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS} and Robert Dubrow and Li Qin and Haiqun Lin and Hern{\'a}ndez-Ram{\'i}rez, {Ra{\'u}l U.} and Neugebauer, {Romain S.} and Wendy Leyden and Keri Althoff and Achenbach, {Chad J.} and Hessol, {Nancy A.} and Modur, {Sharada P} and Gypsyamber D'Souza and Bosch, {Ronald J.} and Surbhi Grover and Horberg, {Michael A.} and Kitahata, {Mari M.} and Mayor, {Angel M.} and Novak, {Richard M.} and Rabkin, {Charles S.} and Sterling, {Timothy R.} and Goedert, {James J.} and Justice, {Amy C.} and Engels, {Eric A.} and Moore, {Richard D} and Silverberg, {Michael J.}",
year = "2017",
month = "4",
day = "7",
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language = "English (US)",
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T1 - Associations of CD4+ T-cell count, HIV-1 RNA viral load, and antiretroviral therapy with Kaposi sarcoma risk among HIV-infected persons in the United States and Canada

AU - for the North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design of the International Epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS

AU - Dubrow, Robert

AU - Qin, Li

AU - Lin, Haiqun

AU - Hernández-Ramírez, Raúl U.

AU - Neugebauer, Romain S.

AU - Leyden, Wendy

AU - Althoff, Keri

AU - Achenbach, Chad J.

AU - Hessol, Nancy A.

AU - Modur, Sharada P

AU - D'Souza, Gypsyamber

AU - Bosch, Ronald J.

AU - Grover, Surbhi

AU - Horberg, Michael A.

AU - Kitahata, Mari M.

AU - Mayor, Angel M.

AU - Novak, Richard M.

AU - Rabkin, Charles S.

AU - Sterling, Timothy R.

AU - Goedert, James J.

AU - Justice, Amy C.

AU - Engels, Eric A.

AU - Moore, Richard D

AU - Silverberg, Michael J.

PY - 2017/4/7

Y1 - 2017/4/7

N2 - BACKGROUND:: Kaposi sarcoma (KS) remains common among HIV-infected persons. To better understand KS etiology and to help target prevention efforts, we comprehensively examined a variety of CD4+ T-cell count and HIV-1 RNA viral load (VL) measures, as well as antiretroviral therapy (ART) use, to determine independent predictors of KS risk. SETTING:: North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design. METHODS:: We followed HIV-infected persons during 1996-2009 from 18 cohorts. We used time-updated Cox regression to model relationships between KS risk and recent, lagged, trajectory, and cumulative CD4 count or VL measures, as well as ART use. We used Akaike’s information criterion and global p-values to derive a final model. RESULTS:: In separate models, the relationship between each measure and KS risk was highly significant (p<0.0001). Our final mutually-adjusted model included recent CD4 count (hazard ratio [HR] for <50 vs. ≥500 cells/µL = 12.4; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 6.5-23.8), recent VL (HR for ≥100,000 vs. ≤500 copies/mL = 3.8; 95% CI: 2.0-7.3), and cumulative (time-weighted mean) VL (HR for ≥100,000 vs. ≤500 copies/mL = 2.5; 95% CI: 1.0-5.9). Each p-trend was <0.0001. After adjusting for these measures, we did not detect an independent association between ART use and KS risk. CONCLUSIONS:: Our results suggested a multifactorial etiology for KS, with early and late phases of development. The cumulative VL effect suggested that controlling HIV replication promptly after HIV diagnosis is important for KS prevention. We observed no evidence for direct anti-KS activity of ART, independent of CD4 count and VL.

AB - BACKGROUND:: Kaposi sarcoma (KS) remains common among HIV-infected persons. To better understand KS etiology and to help target prevention efforts, we comprehensively examined a variety of CD4+ T-cell count and HIV-1 RNA viral load (VL) measures, as well as antiretroviral therapy (ART) use, to determine independent predictors of KS risk. SETTING:: North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design. METHODS:: We followed HIV-infected persons during 1996-2009 from 18 cohorts. We used time-updated Cox regression to model relationships between KS risk and recent, lagged, trajectory, and cumulative CD4 count or VL measures, as well as ART use. We used Akaike’s information criterion and global p-values to derive a final model. RESULTS:: In separate models, the relationship between each measure and KS risk was highly significant (p<0.0001). Our final mutually-adjusted model included recent CD4 count (hazard ratio [HR] for <50 vs. ≥500 cells/µL = 12.4; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 6.5-23.8), recent VL (HR for ≥100,000 vs. ≤500 copies/mL = 3.8; 95% CI: 2.0-7.3), and cumulative (time-weighted mean) VL (HR for ≥100,000 vs. ≤500 copies/mL = 2.5; 95% CI: 1.0-5.9). Each p-trend was <0.0001. After adjusting for these measures, we did not detect an independent association between ART use and KS risk. CONCLUSIONS:: Our results suggested a multifactorial etiology for KS, with early and late phases of development. The cumulative VL effect suggested that controlling HIV replication promptly after HIV diagnosis is important for KS prevention. We observed no evidence for direct anti-KS activity of ART, independent of CD4 count and VL.

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DO - 10.1097/QAI.0000000000001394

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