The ratio of the index (2nd) finger to ring (4th) finger lengths (2D:4D) is a proxy for fetal testosterone and estradiol. Studies suggesting 2D:4D is inversely associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in males were limited by lack of confounder and subgroup assessments. Studies of females are sparse. We examined associations between ASD and 2D:4D among children in the Study to Explore Early Development; we considered case subgroups and numerous potential demographic and maternal-perinatal health confounders. We observed a modest inverse association between ASD and right-hand 2D:4D in males; subgroup analyses indicated associations were limited to ASD cases with birth defects/genetic syndromes or dysmorphic features. We observed a positive association between ASD and left-hand 2D:4D in females, overall and within most case subgroups.
- Autism spectrum disorder
- Fetal development
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Developmental and Educational Psychology