Associations between preoperative depression and opioid use after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction and concomitant procedures

Matthew J. Best, Andrew B. Harris, Jessica M. Mohler, John H. Wilckens

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Objectives: To determine rates of perioperative opioid use and characterize associations between preoperative depression and chronic and cumulative opioid consumption after ACL reconstruction. Methods: Using insurance claims data, we identified 48,657 adults who underwent ACL reconstruction from 2010 to 2015, had prescription drug insurance, and had ≥1 year of continuous insurance enrollment postoperatively. Chronic opioid use was defined as filling ≥120 days’ supply from 3 to 12 months postoperatively. Logistic and linear regression, controlled for age, sex, and Charlson Comorbidity Index value, were used to determine associations of preoperative depression with binary and continuous outcomes, respectively. Results: Preoperatively, 2,237 patients (4.6%) had depression and 2,387 (4.9%) were taking opioids; patients with depression had 6.5 times the odds (95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.8, 7.3) of taking opioids than patients without depression. Postoperatively, 25% of the patients filled ≥1 opioid prescription; mean duration of use was 13 ± 11 days, and 362 patients (0.7%) had chronic use. Patients with preoperative depression were less likely than patients without depression to fill an opioid prescription postoperatively (OR 0.2, 95% CI: 0.2, 0.2). Of patients who filled opioid prescriptions postoperatively, those with preoperative depression were more likely to refill that prescription at least once (OR 2.0, 95% CI: 1.9, 2.2) but did not have greater odds of chronic use (OR 0.9, 95% CI: 0.5, 1.5). Preoperative depression was not associated with greater cumulative opioid consumption from 3 to 12 months postoperatively (β = −40, 95% CI: −226, 146). Conclusion: Although patients with preoperative depression were more likely to take opioids preoperatively and to obtain ≥1 opioid refill postoperatively, they did not have greater odds of chronic postoperative opioid use or greater cumulative opioid consumption after ACL reconstruction.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalPhysician and Sportsmedicine
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - 2020

Keywords

  • ACL
  • anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction
  • Depression
  • opioid
  • preoperative opioid use

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

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