Associations Between Kidney Disease Measures and Regional Pulse Wave Velocity in a Large Community-Based Cohort: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study

Esther D. Kim, Hirofumi Tanaka, Shoshana H. Ballew, Yingying Sang, Gerardo Heiss, Josef Coresh, Kunihiro Matsushita

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Scopus citations


Rationale & Objective: Arterial stiffness is suggested as a mediator of cardiorenal interaction. However, previous studies reported inconsistent associations between chronic kidney disease (CKD) and arterial stiffness and were limited by using either estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) or albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR) and examining arterial stiffness at limited segments. Study Design: Cross-sectional. Setting & Participants: 3,424 Atherosclerosis in Communities (ARIC) Study participants aged 66 to 90 years during 2011 to 2013. Predictors: eGFR and ACR. Outcome: Pulse wave velocity (PWV) at 6 segments: carotid-femoral (cfPWV), heart-carotid (hcPWV), and heart-femoral (hfPWV), reflecting central stiffness; heart-ankle (haPWV) and brachial-ankle (baPWV), representing both central and peripheral stiffness; and femoral-ankle (faPWV), indicating peripheral stiffness. Analytical Approach: Multiple linear and logistic regression models to quantify the associations of eGFR and ACR with continuous PWV and elevated PWV (in the highest quartile), respectively. Results: After adjusting for age, sex, and race, higher cfPWV and hfPWV were consistently associated with lower eGFR and higher ACR. Higher haPWV and baPWV were also observed with higher ACR. The independent association of both CKD measures with elevated cfPWV remained consistent after adjusting for additional confounders (ORs of elevated cfPWV were 1.09 [95% CI, 1.01-1.18] per 15-mL/min/1.73 m2 lower eGFR and 1.20 [95% CI, 1.07-1.33] per 4-fold higher ACR). Higher ACR was also associated with elevated hfPWV and haPWV (ORs per 4-fold higher ACR were 1.25 [95% CI, 1.12-1.39] for elevated hfPWV and 1.19 [95% CI, 1.06-1.33] for elevated haPWV). Lower eGFR was associated with lower odds of elevated baPWV and faPWV (ORs per 15–mL/min/1.73 m2 lower eGFR were 0.92 [95% CI, 0.84-0.99] and 0.91 [95% CI, 0.85-0.99], respectively). Limitation: Unable to address temporality between CKD measures and arterial stiffness. Conclusions: Both lower eGFR and higher ACR are independently associated with measures of central arterial stiffness, with stronger associations for ACR over eGFR. Our findings suggest that central arterial stiffness may be an important pathophysiologic phenotype of vascular disease in CKD.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)682-690
Number of pages9
JournalAmerican Journal of Kidney Diseases
Issue number5
StatePublished - Nov 2018


  • Chronic kidney disease (CKD)
  • albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR)
  • albuminuria
  • arterial stiffness
  • arterial stiffness
  • cardiovascular disease (CVD)
  • central stiffness
  • estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)
  • kidney function
  • pulse wave velocity (PWV)
  • vascular disease

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nephrology


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