Association of socioeconomic status and comorbidities With racial disparities during kidney transplant evaluation

Karly A. Murphy, John W. Jackson, Tanjala S. Purnell, Ashton A. Shaffer, Christine E. Haugen, Nadia M. Chu, Deidra C. Crews, Silas P. Norman, Dorry L. Segev, Mara A. McAdams-Demarco

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background and objectives Black patients referred for kidney transplantation have surpassed many obstacles but likely face continued racial disparities before transplant. The mechanisms that underlie these disparities are unclear. We determined the contributions of socioeconomic status (SES) and comorbidities as mediators to disparities in listing and transplant. Design, setting, participants, & measurements We studied a cohort (n51452 black; n51561 White) of patients With kidney failure Who Were referred for and started the transplant process (2009–2018). We estimated the direct and indirect effects of SES (self-reported income, education, and employment) and medical comorbidities (selfreported and chart-abstracted) as mediators of racial disparities in listing using Cox proportional hazards analysis With inverse odds ratio Weighting. Among the 983 black and 1085 White candidates actively listed, We estimated the direct and indirect effects of SES and comorbidities as mediators of racial disparities on receipt of transplant using Poisson regression With inverse odds ratio Weighting. Results Within the first year, 876 (60%) black and 1028 (66%) White patients Were Waitlisted. The relative risk of listing for black compared With White patients Was 0.76 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.69 to 0.83); after adjustment for SES and comorbidity, the relative risk Was 0.90 (95% CI, 0.83 to 0.97). The proportion of the racial disparity in listing Was explained by SES by 36% (95% CI, 26% to 57%), comorbidity by 44% (95% CI, 35% to 61%), and SES With comorbidity by 58% (95% CI, 44% to 85%). There Were 409 (42%) black and 496 (45%) White listed candidates transplanted, With a median duration of follow-up of 3.9 (interquartile range, 1.2–7.1) and 2.8 (interquartile range, 0.8–6.3) years, respectively. The incidence rate ratio for blackversus White candidates Was 0.87 (95% CI, 0.79 to 0.96); SES and comorbidity did not explain the racial disparity. Conclusions SES and comorbidity partially mediated racial disparities in listing but not for transplant.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)843-851
Number of pages9
JournalClinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology
Volume15
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 8 2020

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Epidemiology
  • Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine
  • Nephrology
  • Transplantation

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