Association of secondhand smoke exposure with nicotine dependence among Black smokers

Shondelle M. Wilson-Frederick, Carla D. Williams, Mary A. Garza, Ana Navas-Acien, Mark R. Emerson, Saifuddin Ahmed, Jean G. Ford

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


Introduction: Exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) is influenced by norms and regulations, socioeconomic status and immediate personal interactions. SHS exposure may occur in various settings, including the living space, workplace, and other social environments. This study examines the association between exposure to SHS and nicotine dependence among current smokers. Methods: A cross-sectional sample of 246 Black (60% male and 40% female) current smokers age 40 and older, from Baltimore, Maryland and Washington, D.C, responded to an interviewer-administered questionnaire. We examined nicotine dependence using clinical guidelines based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Text Revision (2000). We performed multivariate logistic regression to assess the association between SHS and nicotine dependence. Results: SHS exposure in the current home environment and exposure in settings outside the home, as well as difficulty to quit smoking and heaviness of smoking, were associated with nicotine dependence. After adjustment for age, gender, education, income, employment status, current alcohol consumption, history of marijuana use, and number of cigarettes smoked per day; exposure to SHS at home only, and in both current home environment and other settings, continued to be associated with clinically-defined nicotine dependence (OR = 2.25; 95% CI 1.05, 4.86 vs. OR = 2.31; 95% CI 1.03, 5.18), respectively. Discussion: These findings highlight the relative importance of examining SHS exposure in personal (residential and automobile) and public (workplace and outdoor) settings by current smokers. Promotion of smoke-free environments may reduce the prevalence of nicotine dependence among current smokers.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)412-415
Number of pages4
JournalAddictive Behaviors
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2011


  • Clinical nicotine dependence
  • Secondhand smoke (SHS)
  • Smoking ban
  • Tobacco-related disparities

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Clinical Psychology
  • Toxicology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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