AssociAtion of perceived stress and discrimination on medication adherence among diverse patients with uncontrolled hypertension

RICH LIFE Project Investigators

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: Uncontrolled hypertension is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In the United States, many patients remain uncontrolled, in part, due to poor medication adherence. Efforts to improve hypertension control include not only attending to medical management of the disease but also the social determinants of health, which impact medication adherence, and ultimately blood pressure control. Purpose: To determine which social determinants – health care access or community and social stressors - explain medication adherence. Methods: In this cross-sectional analysis, we used baseline data (N=1820, collected August 2017 to October 2019) from a pragmatic trial, which compares the effectiveness of a multi-level intervention including collaborative care and a stepped approach with enhanced standard of care for improving blood pressure. We used logistic regression analyses to examine the association between patient experiences of care and community and social stressors with medication adherence. Results: The participants represented a diverse sample: mean age of 60 years; 59% female; 57.3% Black, 9.6% Hispanic, and 33.2% White. All participants had a blood pressure reading ≥140/90 mm Hg (mean blood pressure – 152/85 mm Hg). Half of the participants reported some level of non-adherence to medication. Regression analysis showed that, compared with Whites, Blacks (AOR .47; 95% CIs: .37-.60, P<.001) and Hispanics (AOR .48; 95% CIs: .32- .73, P<.001) were less likely to report medication adherence. Also part-time workers (AOR .57; 95% CIs: .38-.86, P<.05), and those who reported greater perceived stress (AOR .94; 95% CIs: .91 – .98, P<.001) and everyday discrimination (AOR .73; 95% CIs: .59 – .89; P<.001) had lower odds of medication adherence. Among Blacks, greater perceived stress (AOR .93; 95% CIs: .88-.98, P<.001) and everyday discrimination (AOR .63; 95% CIs: .49 - .82, P<.005) were negatively associated with medication adherence. Among Hispanics, greater report of everyday discrimination (AOR .36; 95% CIs: .14 – .89, P<.005) was associated with lower odds of medication adherence. Among Whites, the negative effect of perceived stress on medication adherence was attenuated by emotional support. Conclusions: Using the social determinants of health framework, we identified associations between stress, everyday discrimination and medication adherence among non-Hispanic Blacks and Hispanics that were independent of health status and other social determinants. Programs to enhance self-management for African American and Hispanic patients with uncontrolled blood pressure should include a specific focus on addressing social stressors.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)97-108
Number of pages12
JournalEthnicity and Disease
Volume31
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2021

Keywords

  • Discrimination
  • Hypertension
  • Medication Adherence
  • Social Determinants
  • Stress

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Epidemiology

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