Objective To study the association between neighbourhood socioeconomic status and diabetes prevalence, incidence, and control in the entire population of northeastern Madrid, Spain. Setting Electronic health records of the primary-care system in four districts of Madrid (Spain). Participants 269 942 people aged 40 or older, followed from 2013 to 2014. Exposure Neighbourhoodsocioeconomic status (NSES), measured using a composite index of seven indicators from four domains of education, wealth, occupation and living conditions. Primary outcome measures Diagnosis of diabetes based on ICPC-2 codes and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c %). Results In regression analyses adjusted by age and sex and compared with individuals living in low NSES neighbourhoods, men living in medium and high NSES neighbourhoods had 10% (95% CI: 6% to 15%) and 29% (95% CI: 25% to 32%) lower prevalence of diabetes, while women had 27% (95% CI: 23% to 30%) and 50% (95% CI: 47% to 52%) lower prevalence of diabetes. Moreover, the hazard of diabetes in men living in medium and high NSES neighbourhoods was 13% (95% CI: 1% to 23%) and 20% (95% CI: 9% to 29%) lower, while the hazard of diabetes in women living in medium and high NSES neighbourhoods was 17% (95% CI: 3% to 29%) and 31% (95% CI: 20% to 41%) lower. Individuals living in medium and high SES neighbourhoods had 8% (95% CI: 2% to 15%) and 15% (95% CI: 9% to 21%) lower prevalence of lack of diabetes control, and a decrease in average HbA1c % of 0.05 (95% CI: 0.01 to 0.10) and 0.11 (95% CI: 0.06 to 0.15). Conclusions Diabetes prevalence, incidence and lack of control increased with decreasing NSES in a southern European city. Future studies should provide mechanistic insights and targets for intervention to address this health inequity.
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