Association of long-term patterns of depressive symptoms and attention/executive function among older men with and without human immunodeficiency virus

Nicole M. Armstrong, Pamela Surkan, Glenn Jordan Treisman, Ned Sacktor, Michael R. Irwin, Linda A. Teplin, Ron Stall, Eileen M. Martin, James T. Becker, Cynthia Munro, Andrew J. Levine, Lisa Paula Jacobson, Alison Gump Abraham

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Older HIV-infected men are at higher risk for both depression and cognitive impairments, compared to HIV-uninfected men. We evaluated the association between longitudinal patterns of depressive symptoms and attention/executive function in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected men aged 50+ years to understand whether HIV infection influenced the long-term effect of depression on attention/executive function. Responses to the Center for Epidemiologic Studies—Depression scale and attention/executive function tests (Trail Making Test Part B and Symbol Digit Modalities Test) were collected semiannually from May 1986 to April 2015 in 1611 men. Group-based trajectory models, stratified by HIV status, were used to identify latent patterns of depressive symptoms and attention/executive function across 12 years of follow-up. We identified three depression patterns for HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected men (rare/never 50.0 vs. 60.6%, periodically depressed 29.6 vs. 24.5%, chronic high 20.5 vs.15.0%, respectively) and three patterns of attention/executive function for HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected men (worst-performing 47.4 vs. 45.1%; average 41.9 vs. 47.0%; best-performing 10.7 vs. 8.0%, respectively). Multivariable logistic regression models were used to assess associations between depression patterns and worst-performing attention/executive function. Among HIV-uninfected men, those in the periodically depressed and chronic high depressed groups had higher odds of membership in the worst-performing attention/executive function group (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.45, 95% CI 1.04, 2.03; AOR = 2.25, 95% CI 1.49, 3.39, respectively). Among HIV-infected men, patterns of depression symptoms were not associated with patterns of attention/executive function. Results suggest that HIV-uninfected, but not HIV-infected, men with chronic high depression are more likely to experience a long-term pattern of attention/executive dysfunction.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1-10
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of NeuroVirology
StateAccepted/In press - Apr 20 2017



  • Aging
  • Attention/executive function
  • Depression
  • Human immunodeficiency virus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neurology
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience
  • Virology

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