Association of cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and physical activity with sex steroid hormone levels in US men

Meredith S. Shiels, Sabine Rohrmann, Andy Menke, Elizabeth Selvin, Carlos J. Crespo, Nader Rifai, Adrian Dobs, Manning Feinleib, Eliseo Guallar, Elizabeth A. Platz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: We evaluated the associations of smoking, alcohol consumption, and physical activity with sex steroid hormone concentrations among 1,275 men =20 years old who participated in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). Methods: Serum concentrations of testosterone, estradiol, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were measured. We compared geometric mean concentrations across levels of smoking, alcohol, and physical activity using multiple linear regression. Results: Current smokers had higher total testosterone (5.42, 5.10, and 5.26 ng/ml in current, former, and never smokers), free testosterone (0.110, 0.102, and 0.104 ng/ml), total estradiol (40.0, 34.5, and 33.5 pg/ml), and free estradiol (1.05, 0.88, and 0.84 pg/ml) compared with former and never smokers (all p = 0.05). Men who consumed =1 drink/day had lower SHBG than men who drank less frequently (31.5 vs. 34.8 nmol/l, p = 0.01); total (p-trend = 0.08) and free testosterone (p-trend = 0.06) increased with number of drinks per day. Physical activity was positively associated with total (p-trend = 0.01) and free testosterone (p-trend = 0.05). Conclusions: In this nationally representative sample of men, smoking, alcohol, and physical activity were associated with hormones and SHBG, thus these factors should be considered as possible confounders or upstream variables in studies of hormones and men's health, including prostate cancer.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)877-886
Number of pages10
JournalCancer Causes and Control
Volume20
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 2009

Keywords

  • Alcohol
  • Hormones
  • Men
  • Physical activity
  • Smoking

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research

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