Association of caregiver strain with the trajectory of quality of life in Parkinson's disease

Kate M. Perepezko, Joseph J. Gallo, Gregory M. Pontone, Jared T. Hinkle, Kelly A. Mills

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


We aimed to identify caregiver characteristics associated with the trajectory of quality of life (QoL) in Parkinson's disease (PD). We fit a growth mixture model to longitudinal data from the Parkinson Foundation Parkinson's Outcomes Project (POP) to identify the heterogeneity of QOL trajectories in PD. We then used multinomial logistic regression to model baseline factors that predicted class membership. Baseline growth models were fit to QOL scores measured over 4 disease duration time points. A random intercept and slope model was determined to best fit the data. Next, growth mixture models (1, 2, 3, 4, and 5-class) were fit with covariates (Hoehn & Yahr, sex, and depression) and a three-class model was found to provide the best fit. Class 1 (problematic class (10.0%)) represented individuals with poor QOL at baseline and minor improvement over time. Class 2 (moderate class (32.6%)) represented individuals with moderate QOL at baseline with slight worsening over time. Class 3 (favorable class (56.9%)) represented individuals with good QOL at baseline and slight worsening over time. Multinomial regression revealed that lower caregiver strain, better mobility, and better verbal fluency at baseline predicted membership in the favorable compared to the moderate class. Worse mobility and younger age predicted membership in the problematic compared to the moderate class. While previous studies have reported on the association between mobility and cognition, the novel finding of an association between caregiver strain and PD QOL trajectory suggests caregiver strain is important to measure and address in future research and practice.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number105292
JournalParkinsonism and Related Disorders
StatePublished - Mar 2023


  • Caregiver strain
  • Mobility
  • Parkinson's disease
  • Quality of life
  • Verbal fluency

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neurology
  • Geriatrics and Gerontology
  • Clinical Neurology


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