Association of blood donation with iron deficiency among adolescent and adult females in the United States: a nationally representative study

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Blood donation results in a loss of iron stores, which is particularly concerning for young female blood donors. This study examines the association of blood donation and iron deficiency among adolescent and adult females in the United States. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis was performed using data from the 1999–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Females who reported their blood donation history in the preceding year and had serum ferritin (SF) measurements were included. Analyses were weighted and stratified by adolescents (16–19 years; n = 2419) and adults (20–49 years; n = 7228). Adjusted prevalence ratios (aPRs) were estimated by multivariable Poisson regression. Standard errors were estimated by Taylor series linearization. RESULTS: Geometric mean SF levels (ng/mL) were lower in blood donors compared to nondonors among adolescents (21.2 vs. 31.4; p < 0.001) and among adults (26.2 vs. 43.7; p < 0.001). The prevalence of absent iron stores (SF < 12 ng/mL) was higher in blood donors compared to nondonors among adolescents (22.6% vs. 12.2%; aPR = 2.03 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.45–2.85]) and among adults (18.3% vs. 9.8%; aPR = 2.06 [95% CI = 1.48–2.88]). Additionally, the prevalence of iron deficiency anemia (SF < 26 ng/mL and hemoglobin < 12.0 g/dL) was also higher in blood donors compared to nondonors among adolescents (9.5% vs. 6.1%; aPR = 2.10 [95% CI = 1.13–3.90]) and among adults (7.9% vs. 6.1%; aPR = 1.74 [95% CI = 1.06–2.85]). Similar results were observed in a sensitivity analysis restricted to adolescents aged 16 to 18 years. CONCLUSIONS: Blood donation is associated with iron deficiency among adolescent and adult females in the United States. These national data call for further development and implementation of blood donation practices aimed toward mitigating iron deficiency.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalTransfusion
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2019

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Blood Donors
Iron
Ferritins
Confidence Intervals
Serum
Iron-Deficiency Anemias
Nutrition Surveys
Hemoglobins
Cross-Sectional Studies

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology
  • Hematology

Cite this

@article{860c20272c9d4e4aafe86b317f342c8b,
title = "Association of blood donation with iron deficiency among adolescent and adult females in the United States: a nationally representative study",
abstract = "BACKGROUND: Blood donation results in a loss of iron stores, which is particularly concerning for young female blood donors. This study examines the association of blood donation and iron deficiency among adolescent and adult females in the United States. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis was performed using data from the 1999–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Females who reported their blood donation history in the preceding year and had serum ferritin (SF) measurements were included. Analyses were weighted and stratified by adolescents (16–19 years; n = 2419) and adults (20–49 years; n = 7228). Adjusted prevalence ratios (aPRs) were estimated by multivariable Poisson regression. Standard errors were estimated by Taylor series linearization. RESULTS: Geometric mean SF levels (ng/mL) were lower in blood donors compared to nondonors among adolescents (21.2 vs. 31.4; p < 0.001) and among adults (26.2 vs. 43.7; p < 0.001). The prevalence of absent iron stores (SF < 12 ng/mL) was higher in blood donors compared to nondonors among adolescents (22.6{\%} vs. 12.2{\%}; aPR = 2.03 [95{\%} confidence interval (CI) = 1.45–2.85]) and among adults (18.3{\%} vs. 9.8{\%}; aPR = 2.06 [95{\%} CI = 1.48–2.88]). Additionally, the prevalence of iron deficiency anemia (SF < 26 ng/mL and hemoglobin < 12.0 g/dL) was also higher in blood donors compared to nondonors among adolescents (9.5{\%} vs. 6.1{\%}; aPR = 2.10 [95{\%} CI = 1.13–3.90]) and among adults (7.9{\%} vs. 6.1{\%}; aPR = 1.74 [95{\%} CI = 1.06–2.85]). Similar results were observed in a sensitivity analysis restricted to adolescents aged 16 to 18 years. CONCLUSIONS: Blood donation is associated with iron deficiency among adolescent and adult females in the United States. These national data call for further development and implementation of blood donation practices aimed toward mitigating iron deficiency.",
author = "Patel, {Eshan U.} and White, {Jodie L.} and Evan Bloch and Mary Grabowski and Eric Gehrie and Parvez Lokhandwala and Brunker, {Patricia Ann Ramaley} and Ruchika Goel and Shaz, {Beth H.} and Ness, {Paul Michael} and Tobian, {Aaron A}",
year = "2019",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1111/trf.15179",
language = "English (US)",
journal = "Transfusion",
issn = "0041-1132",
publisher = "Wiley-Blackwell",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Association of blood donation with iron deficiency among adolescent and adult females in the United States

T2 - a nationally representative study

AU - Patel, Eshan U.

AU - White, Jodie L.

AU - Bloch, Evan

AU - Grabowski, Mary

AU - Gehrie, Eric

AU - Lokhandwala, Parvez

AU - Brunker, Patricia Ann Ramaley

AU - Goel, Ruchika

AU - Shaz, Beth H.

AU - Ness, Paul Michael

AU - Tobian, Aaron A

PY - 2019/1/1

Y1 - 2019/1/1

N2 - BACKGROUND: Blood donation results in a loss of iron stores, which is particularly concerning for young female blood donors. This study examines the association of blood donation and iron deficiency among adolescent and adult females in the United States. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis was performed using data from the 1999–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Females who reported their blood donation history in the preceding year and had serum ferritin (SF) measurements were included. Analyses were weighted and stratified by adolescents (16–19 years; n = 2419) and adults (20–49 years; n = 7228). Adjusted prevalence ratios (aPRs) were estimated by multivariable Poisson regression. Standard errors were estimated by Taylor series linearization. RESULTS: Geometric mean SF levels (ng/mL) were lower in blood donors compared to nondonors among adolescents (21.2 vs. 31.4; p < 0.001) and among adults (26.2 vs. 43.7; p < 0.001). The prevalence of absent iron stores (SF < 12 ng/mL) was higher in blood donors compared to nondonors among adolescents (22.6% vs. 12.2%; aPR = 2.03 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.45–2.85]) and among adults (18.3% vs. 9.8%; aPR = 2.06 [95% CI = 1.48–2.88]). Additionally, the prevalence of iron deficiency anemia (SF < 26 ng/mL and hemoglobin < 12.0 g/dL) was also higher in blood donors compared to nondonors among adolescents (9.5% vs. 6.1%; aPR = 2.10 [95% CI = 1.13–3.90]) and among adults (7.9% vs. 6.1%; aPR = 1.74 [95% CI = 1.06–2.85]). Similar results were observed in a sensitivity analysis restricted to adolescents aged 16 to 18 years. CONCLUSIONS: Blood donation is associated with iron deficiency among adolescent and adult females in the United States. These national data call for further development and implementation of blood donation practices aimed toward mitigating iron deficiency.

AB - BACKGROUND: Blood donation results in a loss of iron stores, which is particularly concerning for young female blood donors. This study examines the association of blood donation and iron deficiency among adolescent and adult females in the United States. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis was performed using data from the 1999–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Females who reported their blood donation history in the preceding year and had serum ferritin (SF) measurements were included. Analyses were weighted and stratified by adolescents (16–19 years; n = 2419) and adults (20–49 years; n = 7228). Adjusted prevalence ratios (aPRs) were estimated by multivariable Poisson regression. Standard errors were estimated by Taylor series linearization. RESULTS: Geometric mean SF levels (ng/mL) were lower in blood donors compared to nondonors among adolescents (21.2 vs. 31.4; p < 0.001) and among adults (26.2 vs. 43.7; p < 0.001). The prevalence of absent iron stores (SF < 12 ng/mL) was higher in blood donors compared to nondonors among adolescents (22.6% vs. 12.2%; aPR = 2.03 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.45–2.85]) and among adults (18.3% vs. 9.8%; aPR = 2.06 [95% CI = 1.48–2.88]). Additionally, the prevalence of iron deficiency anemia (SF < 26 ng/mL and hemoglobin < 12.0 g/dL) was also higher in blood donors compared to nondonors among adolescents (9.5% vs. 6.1%; aPR = 2.10 [95% CI = 1.13–3.90]) and among adults (7.9% vs. 6.1%; aPR = 1.74 [95% CI = 1.06–2.85]). Similar results were observed in a sensitivity analysis restricted to adolescents aged 16 to 18 years. CONCLUSIONS: Blood donation is associated with iron deficiency among adolescent and adult females in the United States. These national data call for further development and implementation of blood donation practices aimed toward mitigating iron deficiency.

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U2 - 10.1111/trf.15179

DO - 10.1111/trf.15179

M3 - Article

C2 - 30779173

AN - SCOPUS:85061774639

JO - Transfusion

JF - Transfusion

SN - 0041-1132

ER -