Association of a community campaign for better beverage choices with beverage purchases from supermarkets

Marlene B. Schwartz, Glenn E. Schneider, Yoon Young Choi, Xun Li, Jennifer Harris, Tatiana Andreyeva, Maia Hyary, Nicolette Highsmith Vernick, Lawrence Appel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

IMPORTANCE Data are needed to evaluate community interventions to reduce consumption of sugary drinks. Supermarket sales data can be used for this purpose. OBJECTIVE To compare beverage sales in Howard County, Maryland (HC), with sales in comparison stores in a contiguous state before and during a 3-year campaign to reduce consumption of sugary beverages. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTIPICANTS This observational experiment with a control group included 15 HC supermarkets and 17 comparison supermarkets.Weekly beverage sales data at baseline (January 1 to December 31, 2012) and from campaign years 1 to 3 (January 1, 2013, through December 31, 2015) were analyzed. A difference-in-differences (DID) regression compared the volume sales per product per week in the HC and comparison stores, controlling for mean product price, competitor's product price, product size, weekly local temperature, and manufacturer. EXPOSURES The campaign message was to reduce consumption of all sugary drinks. Television advertising, digital marketing, direct mail, outdoor advertising, social media, and earned media during the 3-year period created 17 million impressions. Community partners successfully advocated for public policies to encourage healthy beverage consumption in schools, child care, health care, and government settings. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Saleswere tracked of sugary drinks highlighted in the campaign, including regular soda, sports drinks, and fruit drinks. Sales of diet soda and 100% juice were also tracked. Sales data are expressed as mean fluid ounces sold per product, per store, per week. RESULTS Regular soda sales in the 15 HC supermarkets decreased (-19.7%) from 2012 through 2015, whereas sales remained stable (0.8%) in the 17 comparison supermarkets (DID adjusted mean, -369 fl oz; 95%CI, -469 to -269 fl oz; P < .01). Fruit drink sales decreased (-15.3%) in HC stores and remained stable (-0.6%) in comparison stores (DID adjusted mean, -342 fl oz; 95%CI, -466 to -220 fl oz; P < .001). Sales of 100% juice decreased more in HC (-15.0%) than comparison (-2.1%) stores (DID mean, -576 fl oz; 95%CI, -776 to -375 fl oz; P < .001). Sales of sports drinks (-86.3 fl oz; 95%CI, -343.6 to 170.9 fl oz) and diet soda (-17.8 in HC stores vs -11.3 in comparison stores; DID adjusted mean, -78.9 fl oz; 95%CI, -182.1 to 24.4 fl oz) decreased in both communities, but the decreases were not significantly different between groups. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE A locally designed, multicomponent campaign to reduce consumption of sugary drinks was associated with an accelerated decrease in sales of regular soda, fruit drinks, and 100% juice. This policy-focused campaign provides a road map for other communities to reduce consumption of sugary drinks.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)666-674
Number of pages9
JournalJAMA Internal Medicine
Volume177
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - May 1 2017

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Beverages
Fruit
Sports
Diet
Social Media
Television
Postal Service
Public Policy
Child Care
Marketing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine

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Association of a community campaign for better beverage choices with beverage purchases from supermarkets. / Schwartz, Marlene B.; Schneider, Glenn E.; Choi, Yoon Young; Li, Xun; Harris, Jennifer; Andreyeva, Tatiana; Hyary, Maia; Vernick, Nicolette Highsmith; Appel, Lawrence.

In: JAMA Internal Medicine, Vol. 177, No. 5, 01.05.2017, p. 666-674.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Schwartz, MB, Schneider, GE, Choi, YY, Li, X, Harris, J, Andreyeva, T, Hyary, M, Vernick, NH & Appel, L 2017, 'Association of a community campaign for better beverage choices with beverage purchases from supermarkets', JAMA Internal Medicine, vol. 177, no. 5, pp. 666-674. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamainternmed.2016.9650
Schwartz, Marlene B. ; Schneider, Glenn E. ; Choi, Yoon Young ; Li, Xun ; Harris, Jennifer ; Andreyeva, Tatiana ; Hyary, Maia ; Vernick, Nicolette Highsmith ; Appel, Lawrence. / Association of a community campaign for better beverage choices with beverage purchases from supermarkets. In: JAMA Internal Medicine. 2017 ; Vol. 177, No. 5. pp. 666-674.
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abstract = "IMPORTANCE Data are needed to evaluate community interventions to reduce consumption of sugary drinks. Supermarket sales data can be used for this purpose. OBJECTIVE To compare beverage sales in Howard County, Maryland (HC), with sales in comparison stores in a contiguous state before and during a 3-year campaign to reduce consumption of sugary beverages. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTIPICANTS This observational experiment with a control group included 15 HC supermarkets and 17 comparison supermarkets.Weekly beverage sales data at baseline (January 1 to December 31, 2012) and from campaign years 1 to 3 (January 1, 2013, through December 31, 2015) were analyzed. A difference-in-differences (DID) regression compared the volume sales per product per week in the HC and comparison stores, controlling for mean product price, competitor's product price, product size, weekly local temperature, and manufacturer. EXPOSURES The campaign message was to reduce consumption of all sugary drinks. Television advertising, digital marketing, direct mail, outdoor advertising, social media, and earned media during the 3-year period created 17 million impressions. Community partners successfully advocated for public policies to encourage healthy beverage consumption in schools, child care, health care, and government settings. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Saleswere tracked of sugary drinks highlighted in the campaign, including regular soda, sports drinks, and fruit drinks. Sales of diet soda and 100{\%} juice were also tracked. Sales data are expressed as mean fluid ounces sold per product, per store, per week. RESULTS Regular soda sales in the 15 HC supermarkets decreased (-19.7{\%}) from 2012 through 2015, whereas sales remained stable (0.8{\%}) in the 17 comparison supermarkets (DID adjusted mean, -369 fl oz; 95{\%}CI, -469 to -269 fl oz; P < .01). Fruit drink sales decreased (-15.3{\%}) in HC stores and remained stable (-0.6{\%}) in comparison stores (DID adjusted mean, -342 fl oz; 95{\%}CI, -466 to -220 fl oz; P < .001). Sales of 100{\%} juice decreased more in HC (-15.0{\%}) than comparison (-2.1{\%}) stores (DID mean, -576 fl oz; 95{\%}CI, -776 to -375 fl oz; P < .001). Sales of sports drinks (-86.3 fl oz; 95{\%}CI, -343.6 to 170.9 fl oz) and diet soda (-17.8 in HC stores vs -11.3 in comparison stores; DID adjusted mean, -78.9 fl oz; 95{\%}CI, -182.1 to 24.4 fl oz) decreased in both communities, but the decreases were not significantly different between groups. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE A locally designed, multicomponent campaign to reduce consumption of sugary drinks was associated with an accelerated decrease in sales of regular soda, fruit drinks, and 100{\%} juice. This policy-focused campaign provides a road map for other communities to reduce consumption of sugary drinks.",
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AU - Schwartz, Marlene B.

AU - Schneider, Glenn E.

AU - Choi, Yoon Young

AU - Li, Xun

AU - Harris, Jennifer

AU - Andreyeva, Tatiana

AU - Hyary, Maia

AU - Vernick, Nicolette Highsmith

AU - Appel, Lawrence

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N2 - IMPORTANCE Data are needed to evaluate community interventions to reduce consumption of sugary drinks. Supermarket sales data can be used for this purpose. OBJECTIVE To compare beverage sales in Howard County, Maryland (HC), with sales in comparison stores in a contiguous state before and during a 3-year campaign to reduce consumption of sugary beverages. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTIPICANTS This observational experiment with a control group included 15 HC supermarkets and 17 comparison supermarkets.Weekly beverage sales data at baseline (January 1 to December 31, 2012) and from campaign years 1 to 3 (January 1, 2013, through December 31, 2015) were analyzed. A difference-in-differences (DID) regression compared the volume sales per product per week in the HC and comparison stores, controlling for mean product price, competitor's product price, product size, weekly local temperature, and manufacturer. EXPOSURES The campaign message was to reduce consumption of all sugary drinks. Television advertising, digital marketing, direct mail, outdoor advertising, social media, and earned media during the 3-year period created 17 million impressions. Community partners successfully advocated for public policies to encourage healthy beverage consumption in schools, child care, health care, and government settings. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Saleswere tracked of sugary drinks highlighted in the campaign, including regular soda, sports drinks, and fruit drinks. Sales of diet soda and 100% juice were also tracked. Sales data are expressed as mean fluid ounces sold per product, per store, per week. RESULTS Regular soda sales in the 15 HC supermarkets decreased (-19.7%) from 2012 through 2015, whereas sales remained stable (0.8%) in the 17 comparison supermarkets (DID adjusted mean, -369 fl oz; 95%CI, -469 to -269 fl oz; P < .01). Fruit drink sales decreased (-15.3%) in HC stores and remained stable (-0.6%) in comparison stores (DID adjusted mean, -342 fl oz; 95%CI, -466 to -220 fl oz; P < .001). Sales of 100% juice decreased more in HC (-15.0%) than comparison (-2.1%) stores (DID mean, -576 fl oz; 95%CI, -776 to -375 fl oz; P < .001). Sales of sports drinks (-86.3 fl oz; 95%CI, -343.6 to 170.9 fl oz) and diet soda (-17.8 in HC stores vs -11.3 in comparison stores; DID adjusted mean, -78.9 fl oz; 95%CI, -182.1 to 24.4 fl oz) decreased in both communities, but the decreases were not significantly different between groups. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE A locally designed, multicomponent campaign to reduce consumption of sugary drinks was associated with an accelerated decrease in sales of regular soda, fruit drinks, and 100% juice. This policy-focused campaign provides a road map for other communities to reduce consumption of sugary drinks.

AB - IMPORTANCE Data are needed to evaluate community interventions to reduce consumption of sugary drinks. Supermarket sales data can be used for this purpose. OBJECTIVE To compare beverage sales in Howard County, Maryland (HC), with sales in comparison stores in a contiguous state before and during a 3-year campaign to reduce consumption of sugary beverages. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTIPICANTS This observational experiment with a control group included 15 HC supermarkets and 17 comparison supermarkets.Weekly beverage sales data at baseline (January 1 to December 31, 2012) and from campaign years 1 to 3 (January 1, 2013, through December 31, 2015) were analyzed. A difference-in-differences (DID) regression compared the volume sales per product per week in the HC and comparison stores, controlling for mean product price, competitor's product price, product size, weekly local temperature, and manufacturer. EXPOSURES The campaign message was to reduce consumption of all sugary drinks. Television advertising, digital marketing, direct mail, outdoor advertising, social media, and earned media during the 3-year period created 17 million impressions. Community partners successfully advocated for public policies to encourage healthy beverage consumption in schools, child care, health care, and government settings. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Saleswere tracked of sugary drinks highlighted in the campaign, including regular soda, sports drinks, and fruit drinks. Sales of diet soda and 100% juice were also tracked. Sales data are expressed as mean fluid ounces sold per product, per store, per week. RESULTS Regular soda sales in the 15 HC supermarkets decreased (-19.7%) from 2012 through 2015, whereas sales remained stable (0.8%) in the 17 comparison supermarkets (DID adjusted mean, -369 fl oz; 95%CI, -469 to -269 fl oz; P < .01). Fruit drink sales decreased (-15.3%) in HC stores and remained stable (-0.6%) in comparison stores (DID adjusted mean, -342 fl oz; 95%CI, -466 to -220 fl oz; P < .001). Sales of 100% juice decreased more in HC (-15.0%) than comparison (-2.1%) stores (DID mean, -576 fl oz; 95%CI, -776 to -375 fl oz; P < .001). Sales of sports drinks (-86.3 fl oz; 95%CI, -343.6 to 170.9 fl oz) and diet soda (-17.8 in HC stores vs -11.3 in comparison stores; DID adjusted mean, -78.9 fl oz; 95%CI, -182.1 to 24.4 fl oz) decreased in both communities, but the decreases were not significantly different between groups. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE A locally designed, multicomponent campaign to reduce consumption of sugary drinks was associated with an accelerated decrease in sales of regular soda, fruit drinks, and 100% juice. This policy-focused campaign provides a road map for other communities to reduce consumption of sugary drinks.

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