Association of 24-Hour Blood Pressure with Urinary Sodium Excretion in Healthy Adults

Jan Gerrit Van Der Stouwe, Cristian Carmeli, Stefanie Aeschbacher, Tobias Schoen, Philipp Krisai, Giuditta Wenger, Georg Ehret, Belen Ponte, Menno Pruijm, Daniel Ackermann, Idris Guessous, Fred Paccaud, Antoinette Pechère-Bertschi, Bruno Vogt, Markus G. Mohaupt, Pierre Yves Martin, Michel Burnier, Martin Risch, Lorenz Risch, Murielle BochudDavid Conen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background: While the positive relationship between urinary sodium excretion and blood pressure (BP) is well established for middle-aged to elderly individuals using office BP, data are limited for younger individuals and ambulatory BP measurements. Methods: Our analysis included 2,899 individuals aged 18 to 90 years from 2 population-based studies (GAPP, Swiss Kidney Project on Genes in Hypertension [SKIPOGH]). Participants with prevalent cardiovascular disease, diabetes, or on BP-lowering treatment were excluded. In SKIPOGH, 24-hour urinary sodium excretion was used as a measure of sodium intake, while in GAPP it was calculated from fasting morning urinary samples using the Kawasaki formula. Multivariable linear regression models were used to assess the relationships of 24-hour urinary salt excretion with office and ambulatory BP measurements. Results: Mean age, ambulatory BP, sodium excretion, and estimated glomerular filtration rate in GAPP and SKIPOGH were 35 and 44 years, 123/78 and 118/77 mm Hg, 4.2 and 3.3 g/d, and 110 and 99 ml/min/1.73 m2, respectively. A weak linear association was observed between 24-hour ambulatory systolic BP and urinary sodium excretion (β (95% confidence interval [CI]) per 1 g increase in sodium excretion (0.33 % (0.09; 0.57); P = 0.008). No significant relationships were observed for 24-hour ambulatory diastolic BP (β (95% CI) (0.13 % (-0.15; 0.40) P = 0.37). When repeating the analyses in different age groups, all BP indices appeared to have stronger relationships in the older age groups (>40 years). Conclusions: In these large cohorts of healthy adults, urinary sodium excretion was only weakly associated with systolic 24-hour ambulatory BP.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)784-791
Number of pages8
JournalAmerican Journal of Hypertension
Volume31
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 11 2018

Fingerprint

Sodium
Blood Pressure
Hypertension
Kidney
Linear Models
Age Groups
Confidence Intervals
Genes
Glomerular Filtration Rate
Fasting
Cardiovascular Diseases
Salts
Population

Keywords

  • 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure
  • Blood pressure
  • epidemiology
  • hypertension
  • Kawasaki
  • office blood pressure
  • urinary salt excretion

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine

Cite this

Van Der Stouwe, J. G., Carmeli, C., Aeschbacher, S., Schoen, T., Krisai, P., Wenger, G., ... Conen, D. (2018). Association of 24-Hour Blood Pressure with Urinary Sodium Excretion in Healthy Adults. American Journal of Hypertension, 31(7), 784-791. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajh/hpy031

Association of 24-Hour Blood Pressure with Urinary Sodium Excretion in Healthy Adults. / Van Der Stouwe, Jan Gerrit; Carmeli, Cristian; Aeschbacher, Stefanie; Schoen, Tobias; Krisai, Philipp; Wenger, Giuditta; Ehret, Georg; Ponte, Belen; Pruijm, Menno; Ackermann, Daniel; Guessous, Idris; Paccaud, Fred; Pechère-Bertschi, Antoinette; Vogt, Bruno; Mohaupt, Markus G.; Martin, Pierre Yves; Burnier, Michel; Risch, Martin; Risch, Lorenz; Bochud, Murielle; Conen, David.

In: American Journal of Hypertension, Vol. 31, No. 7, 11.06.2018, p. 784-791.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Van Der Stouwe, JG, Carmeli, C, Aeschbacher, S, Schoen, T, Krisai, P, Wenger, G, Ehret, G, Ponte, B, Pruijm, M, Ackermann, D, Guessous, I, Paccaud, F, Pechère-Bertschi, A, Vogt, B, Mohaupt, MG, Martin, PY, Burnier, M, Risch, M, Risch, L, Bochud, M & Conen, D 2018, 'Association of 24-Hour Blood Pressure with Urinary Sodium Excretion in Healthy Adults', American Journal of Hypertension, vol. 31, no. 7, pp. 784-791. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajh/hpy031
Van Der Stouwe JG, Carmeli C, Aeschbacher S, Schoen T, Krisai P, Wenger G et al. Association of 24-Hour Blood Pressure with Urinary Sodium Excretion in Healthy Adults. American Journal of Hypertension. 2018 Jun 11;31(7):784-791. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajh/hpy031
Van Der Stouwe, Jan Gerrit ; Carmeli, Cristian ; Aeschbacher, Stefanie ; Schoen, Tobias ; Krisai, Philipp ; Wenger, Giuditta ; Ehret, Georg ; Ponte, Belen ; Pruijm, Menno ; Ackermann, Daniel ; Guessous, Idris ; Paccaud, Fred ; Pechère-Bertschi, Antoinette ; Vogt, Bruno ; Mohaupt, Markus G. ; Martin, Pierre Yves ; Burnier, Michel ; Risch, Martin ; Risch, Lorenz ; Bochud, Murielle ; Conen, David. / Association of 24-Hour Blood Pressure with Urinary Sodium Excretion in Healthy Adults. In: American Journal of Hypertension. 2018 ; Vol. 31, No. 7. pp. 784-791.
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abstract = "Background: While the positive relationship between urinary sodium excretion and blood pressure (BP) is well established for middle-aged to elderly individuals using office BP, data are limited for younger individuals and ambulatory BP measurements. Methods: Our analysis included 2,899 individuals aged 18 to 90 years from 2 population-based studies (GAPP, Swiss Kidney Project on Genes in Hypertension [SKIPOGH]). Participants with prevalent cardiovascular disease, diabetes, or on BP-lowering treatment were excluded. In SKIPOGH, 24-hour urinary sodium excretion was used as a measure of sodium intake, while in GAPP it was calculated from fasting morning urinary samples using the Kawasaki formula. Multivariable linear regression models were used to assess the relationships of 24-hour urinary salt excretion with office and ambulatory BP measurements. Results: Mean age, ambulatory BP, sodium excretion, and estimated glomerular filtration rate in GAPP and SKIPOGH were 35 and 44 years, 123/78 and 118/77 mm Hg, 4.2 and 3.3 g/d, and 110 and 99 ml/min/1.73 m2, respectively. A weak linear association was observed between 24-hour ambulatory systolic BP and urinary sodium excretion (β (95{\%} confidence interval [CI]) per 1 g increase in sodium excretion (0.33 {\%} (0.09; 0.57); P = 0.008). No significant relationships were observed for 24-hour ambulatory diastolic BP (β (95{\%} CI) (0.13 {\%} (-0.15; 0.40) P = 0.37). When repeating the analyses in different age groups, all BP indices appeared to have stronger relationships in the older age groups (>40 years). Conclusions: In these large cohorts of healthy adults, urinary sodium excretion was only weakly associated with systolic 24-hour ambulatory BP.",
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T1 - Association of 24-Hour Blood Pressure with Urinary Sodium Excretion in Healthy Adults

AU - Van Der Stouwe, Jan Gerrit

AU - Carmeli, Cristian

AU - Aeschbacher, Stefanie

AU - Schoen, Tobias

AU - Krisai, Philipp

AU - Wenger, Giuditta

AU - Ehret, Georg

AU - Ponte, Belen

AU - Pruijm, Menno

AU - Ackermann, Daniel

AU - Guessous, Idris

AU - Paccaud, Fred

AU - Pechère-Bertschi, Antoinette

AU - Vogt, Bruno

AU - Mohaupt, Markus G.

AU - Martin, Pierre Yves

AU - Burnier, Michel

AU - Risch, Martin

AU - Risch, Lorenz

AU - Bochud, Murielle

AU - Conen, David

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N2 - Background: While the positive relationship between urinary sodium excretion and blood pressure (BP) is well established for middle-aged to elderly individuals using office BP, data are limited for younger individuals and ambulatory BP measurements. Methods: Our analysis included 2,899 individuals aged 18 to 90 years from 2 population-based studies (GAPP, Swiss Kidney Project on Genes in Hypertension [SKIPOGH]). Participants with prevalent cardiovascular disease, diabetes, or on BP-lowering treatment were excluded. In SKIPOGH, 24-hour urinary sodium excretion was used as a measure of sodium intake, while in GAPP it was calculated from fasting morning urinary samples using the Kawasaki formula. Multivariable linear regression models were used to assess the relationships of 24-hour urinary salt excretion with office and ambulatory BP measurements. Results: Mean age, ambulatory BP, sodium excretion, and estimated glomerular filtration rate in GAPP and SKIPOGH were 35 and 44 years, 123/78 and 118/77 mm Hg, 4.2 and 3.3 g/d, and 110 and 99 ml/min/1.73 m2, respectively. A weak linear association was observed between 24-hour ambulatory systolic BP and urinary sodium excretion (β (95% confidence interval [CI]) per 1 g increase in sodium excretion (0.33 % (0.09; 0.57); P = 0.008). No significant relationships were observed for 24-hour ambulatory diastolic BP (β (95% CI) (0.13 % (-0.15; 0.40) P = 0.37). When repeating the analyses in different age groups, all BP indices appeared to have stronger relationships in the older age groups (>40 years). Conclusions: In these large cohorts of healthy adults, urinary sodium excretion was only weakly associated with systolic 24-hour ambulatory BP.

AB - Background: While the positive relationship between urinary sodium excretion and blood pressure (BP) is well established for middle-aged to elderly individuals using office BP, data are limited for younger individuals and ambulatory BP measurements. Methods: Our analysis included 2,899 individuals aged 18 to 90 years from 2 population-based studies (GAPP, Swiss Kidney Project on Genes in Hypertension [SKIPOGH]). Participants with prevalent cardiovascular disease, diabetes, or on BP-lowering treatment were excluded. In SKIPOGH, 24-hour urinary sodium excretion was used as a measure of sodium intake, while in GAPP it was calculated from fasting morning urinary samples using the Kawasaki formula. Multivariable linear regression models were used to assess the relationships of 24-hour urinary salt excretion with office and ambulatory BP measurements. Results: Mean age, ambulatory BP, sodium excretion, and estimated glomerular filtration rate in GAPP and SKIPOGH were 35 and 44 years, 123/78 and 118/77 mm Hg, 4.2 and 3.3 g/d, and 110 and 99 ml/min/1.73 m2, respectively. A weak linear association was observed between 24-hour ambulatory systolic BP and urinary sodium excretion (β (95% confidence interval [CI]) per 1 g increase in sodium excretion (0.33 % (0.09; 0.57); P = 0.008). No significant relationships were observed for 24-hour ambulatory diastolic BP (β (95% CI) (0.13 % (-0.15; 0.40) P = 0.37). When repeating the analyses in different age groups, all BP indices appeared to have stronger relationships in the older age groups (>40 years). Conclusions: In these large cohorts of healthy adults, urinary sodium excretion was only weakly associated with systolic 24-hour ambulatory BP.

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KW - hypertension

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KW - office blood pressure

KW - urinary salt excretion

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