Humans are exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from various occupational, dietary, environmental and medicinal sources. We measured 1-hydroxypyrene-glucuronide (1-OHP-gluc) concentration in urines from male non-smokers (n = 50), smokers of blond tobacco (n = 31), smokers of black tobacco (n = 16), and pipe smokers (n = 3). Immunoaffinity chromatography was used as a preparative step and synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy as the quantitation method. The concentration of 1-OHP-gluc in urine from smokers (mean±SE: 1.04±0.13 pmol ml-1 urine) was significantly higher than in urine from non-smokers (0.55 ±0.05 pmol ml-1 urine) by the Wilcoxon rank sum test (non-smokers versus all smokers, p=0.001; vs black-tobacco smokers, p=0.001; vs blond-tobacco smokers, p=0.007). Urinary 1-OHP-gluc concentration among subjects who had consumed roasted, grilled or broiled meat within the past 24 h was elevated compared with those who had not (p=0.025). Multiple linear regression showed significant associations of urinary 1-OHP-gluc with number of cigarettes smoked (p=0.002) and consumption of roasted, grilled or broiled meat (p=0.028). Systemic CYP1A2 activity estimated by caffeine metabolism was significantly correlated with urinary 1-OHP-gluc concentration. However, this association was probably due to cigarette smoking, since adjusting for cigarette smoking by multiple linear regression made the association between urinary 1-OHP-gluc and CYP1A2 phenotype non-significant. These results further support the use of urinary 1-OHP-gluc as a biomarker of recent pyrene exposure through inhalation or diet.
- Meat consumption
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Biochemistry
- Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis