To evaluate the association between plasma retinol levels with all-cause mortality and investigate the possible effect modifiers in general hypertensive patients with no previous cardiovascular disease (CVD). This case-control study was nested in the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial (CSPPT), a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial conducted in 32 communities in Anhui and Jiangsu provinces in China. The current study included 617 cases of all-cause mortality and 617 controls matched on age (≤1 year), sex, treatment group, and study site. All-cause mortality was the main outcome in this analysis, which included death due to any reason. The median follow-up duration was 4.5 years. Overall, there was a U-shaped relation of plasma retinol with all-cause mortality. In the threshold effect analysis, the risk of all-cause mortality significantly decreased with the increase in plasma retinol (per 10 μg/dL increments: OR, 0.73; 95% CI: 0.61-0.87) in participants with plasma retinol <58.3 μg/dL and increased with the increase in plasma retinol (per 10 μg/dL increments: OR, 1.08; 95% CI: 1.01-1.16) in those with plasma retinol ≥58.3 μg/L. In participants with plasma retinol <58.3 μg/dL, a stronger inverse association was observed in those with higher time-averaged SBP (≥140 vs <140 mm Hg; P-interaction =.034), or higher vitamin E levels (≥11.5 [quartile 4]; vs <11.5 μg/mL; P-interaction =.013). The present study demonstrated that there was a U-shaped relationship of plasma retinol levels with the risk of all-cause mortality in general hypertensive patients, with a turning point around 58.3 μg/dL.
- all-cause mortality
- systolic blood pressure
- vitamin E
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Internal Medicine
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine