Association between Intraventricular Alteplase Use and Parenchymal Hematoma Volume in Patients with Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage and Intraventricular Hemorrhage

Jens Witsch, David J. Roh, Radhika Avadhani, Alexander E. Merkler, Hooman Kamel, Issam Awad, Daniel F. Hanley, Wendy C. Ziai, Santosh B. Murthy

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Importance: Intraventricular thrombolysis reduces intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) volume in patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), but it is unclear if a similar association with parenchymal ICH volume exists. Objective: To evaluate the association between intraventricular alteplase use and ICH volume as well as the association between a change in parenchymal ICH volume and long-term functional outcomes. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study was a post hoc exploratory analysis of data from the Clot Lysis: Evaluating Accelerated Resolution of Intraventricular Hemorrhage phase 3 randomized clinical trial with blinded outcome assessments. Between September 1, 2009, and January 31, 2015, patients with ICH and IVH were randomized to receive either intraventricular alteplase or normal saline via an external ventricular drain. Participants with primary IVH were excluded. Data analyses were performed between January 1 and June 30, 2021. Exposure: Randomization to receive intraventricular alteplase. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the change in parenchymal ICH volume between the hematoma stability and end-of-treatment computed tomography scans. Secondary outcomes were a modified Rankin Scale score higher than 3 and mortality, both of which were assessed at 6 months. The association between alteplase and change in parenchymal ICH volume was assessed using multiple linear regression, whereas the associations between change in parenchymal ICH volume and 6-month outcomes were assessed using multiple logistic regression. Prespecified subgroup analyses were performed for baseline IVH volume, admission ICH volume, and ICH location. Results: A total of 454 patients (254 men [55.9%]; mean [SD] age, 59 [11] years) were included in the study. Of these patients, 230 (50.7%) were randomized to receive alteplase and 224 (49.3%) to receive normal saline. The alteplase group had a greater mean (SD) reduction in parenchymal ICH volume compared with the saline group (1.8 [0.2] mL vs 0.4 [0.1] mL; P <.001). In the primary analysis, alteplase use was associated with a change in the parenchymal ICH volume in the unadjusted analysis per 1-mL change (β, 1.37; 95% CI, 0.92-1.81; P <.001) and in multivariable linear regression analysis that was adjusted for demographic characteristics, stability ICH and IVH volumes, ICH location, and time to first dose of study drug per 1-mL change (β, 1.20; 95% CI, 0.79-1.62; P <.001). In the secondary analyses, no association was found between change in parenchymal ICH volume and poor outcome (odds ratio [OR], 0.97; 95% CI 0.87-1.10; P =.64) or mortality (OR, 0.97; 95% CI 0.99-1.08; P =.59). Similar results were observed in the subgroup analyses. Conclusions and Relevance: This study found that intraventricular alteplase use in patients with a large IVH was associated with a small reduction in parenchymal ICH volume, but this association did not translate into improved functional outcomes or mortality. Intraventricular thrombolysis should be examined in patients with moderate to large ICH with IVH, especially in a thalamic location..

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere2135773
JournalJAMA Network Open
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 2 2021

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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