Association between hospitals caring for a disproportionately high percentage of minority trauma patients and increased mortality: A nationwide analysis of 434 hospitals

Adil H. Haider, Sharon Ong'uti, David Thomas Efron, Tolulope A. Oyetunji, Marie L. Crandall, Valerie K. Scott, Elliott Haut, Eric B. Schneider, Neil R. Powe, Lisa A Cooper, Edward E. Cornwell

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Objective: To determine whether there is an increased odds of mortality among trauma patients treated at hospitals with higher proportions of minority patients (ie, black and Hispanic patients combined). Design: Hospitals were categorizedonthe basis of the percentage of minority patients admitted with trauma.Theadjustedoddsof in-hospital mortalitywerecomparedbetween hospitals with less than 25% of patients who were minorities (the reference group) and hospitals with 25% to 50% of patientswhowereminoritiesandhospitalswithmorethan 50% of patients who were minorities. Multivariate logistic regression (with generalized linear modeling and a cluster-correlated robust estimate of variance) was used to control for multiple patient and injury severity characteristics. Setting: A total of 434 hospitals in the National Trauma Data Bank. Participants: Patients aged 18 to 64 years whose medical records were included in the National Trauma Data Bank for the years 2007 and 2008 with an Injury Severity Score of 9 or greater and who were white, black, or Hispanic. Main Outcome Measures: Crude mortality and adjusted odds of in-hospital mortality. Results: A total of 311 568 patients were examined. Hospitals in which the percentage of minority patients was more than 50% also had younger patients, fewer female patients, more patients with penetrating trauma, and the highest crude mortality. After adjustment for potential confounders, patients treated at hospitals in which the percentage of minority patients was 25% to 50% and at hospitals in which the percentage of minority patients was more than 50% demonstrated increased odds of death (adjusted odds ratio, 1.16 [95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.34] and adjusted odds ratio, 1.37 [95% confidence interval, 1.16-1.61], respectively), compared with the reference group. This disparity increased further on subset analysis of patients with a blunt injury. Uninsured patients had significantly increased odds of mortality within all 3 hospital groups. Conclusions: Patients treated at hospitals with higher proportions of minority trauma patients have increased odds of dying, even after adjusting for potential confounders. Differences in outcomes between trauma hospitals may partly explain racial disparities.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)63-70
Number of pages8
JournalArchives of Surgery
Volume147
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 2012

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Mortality
Wounds and Injuries
Hispanic Americans
Odds Ratio
Databases
Confidence Intervals
Hospital Design and Construction
Minority Groups
Nonpenetrating Wounds
Injury Severity Score
Multiple Trauma
Hospital Mortality
Medical Records
Logistic Models
Outcome Assessment (Health Care)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery

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Association between hospitals caring for a disproportionately high percentage of minority trauma patients and increased mortality : A nationwide analysis of 434 hospitals. / Haider, Adil H.; Ong'uti, Sharon; Efron, David Thomas; Oyetunji, Tolulope A.; Crandall, Marie L.; Scott, Valerie K.; Haut, Elliott; Schneider, Eric B.; Powe, Neil R.; Cooper, Lisa A; Cornwell, Edward E.

In: Archives of Surgery, Vol. 147, No. 1, 01.2012, p. 63-70.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Haider, Adil H. ; Ong'uti, Sharon ; Efron, David Thomas ; Oyetunji, Tolulope A. ; Crandall, Marie L. ; Scott, Valerie K. ; Haut, Elliott ; Schneider, Eric B. ; Powe, Neil R. ; Cooper, Lisa A ; Cornwell, Edward E. / Association between hospitals caring for a disproportionately high percentage of minority trauma patients and increased mortality : A nationwide analysis of 434 hospitals. In: Archives of Surgery. 2012 ; Vol. 147, No. 1. pp. 63-70.
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AU - Efron, David Thomas

AU - Oyetunji, Tolulope A.

AU - Crandall, Marie L.

AU - Scott, Valerie K.

AU - Haut, Elliott

AU - Schneider, Eric B.

AU - Powe, Neil R.

AU - Cooper, Lisa A

AU - Cornwell, Edward E.

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N2 - Objective: To determine whether there is an increased odds of mortality among trauma patients treated at hospitals with higher proportions of minority patients (ie, black and Hispanic patients combined). Design: Hospitals were categorizedonthe basis of the percentage of minority patients admitted with trauma.Theadjustedoddsof in-hospital mortalitywerecomparedbetween hospitals with less than 25% of patients who were minorities (the reference group) and hospitals with 25% to 50% of patientswhowereminoritiesandhospitalswithmorethan 50% of patients who were minorities. Multivariate logistic regression (with generalized linear modeling and a cluster-correlated robust estimate of variance) was used to control for multiple patient and injury severity characteristics. Setting: A total of 434 hospitals in the National Trauma Data Bank. Participants: Patients aged 18 to 64 years whose medical records were included in the National Trauma Data Bank for the years 2007 and 2008 with an Injury Severity Score of 9 or greater and who were white, black, or Hispanic. Main Outcome Measures: Crude mortality and adjusted odds of in-hospital mortality. Results: A total of 311 568 patients were examined. Hospitals in which the percentage of minority patients was more than 50% also had younger patients, fewer female patients, more patients with penetrating trauma, and the highest crude mortality. After adjustment for potential confounders, patients treated at hospitals in which the percentage of minority patients was 25% to 50% and at hospitals in which the percentage of minority patients was more than 50% demonstrated increased odds of death (adjusted odds ratio, 1.16 [95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.34] and adjusted odds ratio, 1.37 [95% confidence interval, 1.16-1.61], respectively), compared with the reference group. This disparity increased further on subset analysis of patients with a blunt injury. Uninsured patients had significantly increased odds of mortality within all 3 hospital groups. Conclusions: Patients treated at hospitals with higher proportions of minority trauma patients have increased odds of dying, even after adjusting for potential confounders. Differences in outcomes between trauma hospitals may partly explain racial disparities.

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