Background Intracardiac echocardiography (ICE) is increasingly used to guide complex ablation procedures. This study aimed to assess the scar substrate of ventricular tachycardia (VT) by ICE in patients undergoing VT ablation. Methods In 22 patients undergoing VT ablation (10 ischemic, 12 nonischemic), the Biosense CARTOSOUND module (Biosense Webster, Diamond Bar, CA, USA) was used for three-dimensional reconstruction of the ventricles. The characteristics and appearance with ICE imaging of voltage-defined scar zones (bipolar voltage <0.5 mV), border zones (0.5-1.5 mV), and normal myocardium (>1.5 mV) on electroanatomic maps were evaluated. The standard image analysis software Image J (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA) was used to analyze signal intensity (mean pixel signal intensity unit [SIU]) and heterogeneity (standard deviation of signal intensity in analyzed area) on ICE images. Results A total of 83 myocardial areas were analyzed from two-dimensional ICE images (15 scars, 31 border zones, and 37 normal). Voltage-defined scar zones had increased signal intensities compared to border zones (149 SIU vs 104 SIU, P < 0.0001) and normal myocardium (88 SIU, P < 0.0001). Border zones were more likely to have heterogeneous densities compared to normal myocardium (standard deviation of signal intensity 20 SIU vs 12 SIU, P < 0.0001). In receiver-operator characteristic analyses, signal intensity ≥137 SIU differentiated scar from nonscar zones (area under curve 0.91, P < 0.0001). Software-based color enhancement of areas with signal intensity ≥137 SIU allowed identification of the VT substrate in all 15 patients with voltage-defined scar zones. Conclusions ICE provides important information about the VT anatomical substrate and may have potential to identify areas of scarred myocardium.
- intracardiac echocardiography
- ventricular tachycardia
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine