Assessment of 2-chloroadenosine treatment after experimental traumatic brain injury in the rat using arterial spin-labeled MRI: a preliminary report.

Courtney Robertson, K. S. Hendrich, P. M. Kochanek, E. K. Jackson, J. A. Melick, S. H. Graham, D. W. Marion, D. S. Williams, C. Ho

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Adenosine is a putative endogenous neuroprotectant. Its action at A1 receptors mitigates excitotoxicity while action at A2 receptors increases cerebral blood flow (CBF). We hypothesized that cerebral injection of the adenosine analog, 2-chloroadenosine, would decrease swelling and increase CBF early after experimental traumatic brain injury (TBI). To test this hypothesis, rats were anesthetized and subjected to TBI using a controlled cortical impact (CCI) model (n = 5/group). Immediately after injury, 2-chloroadenosine (0.3 nmole in 2 microliters) or an equal volume of vehicle were stereotactically injected lateral to the area of contusion. Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), in vivo spin-lattice relaxation time of tissue water (Tlobs) and CBF (arterial spin labeling) were measured in a 2-mm thick slice in the injured and non-injured hemispheres at 3-4 h after CCI. In a separate, preliminary experiment, the effect of 2-chloroadenosine injection in normal rat brain was studied. Rats (n = 2) were anesthetized and a burr hole was made for injection of 2-chloroadenosine into the same site as in the TBI model. One rat received the standard dose of 0.3 nmole and one rat received a 6 nmole injection. Tlobs and CBF studies were obtained 1.5-3.5 h after injection, using the same MRI methods as in the TBI study. In rats subjected to TBI, treatment with 2-chloroadenosine attenuated the increase in Tlobs after injury (p <0.05 for treatment vs vehicle) in both hippocampus and cortex ipsilateral to injury. However, treatment with 2-chloroadenosine did not improve post-traumatic hypoperfusion. In normal rats, injection of 0.3 nmole of 2-chloroadenosine did not increase CBF, but the higher dosage of 6 nmole dramatically increased hemispheric CBF by 1.5-2.0-fold. The effect of local injection of 2-chloroadenosine at a dose of 0.3 nmole after experimental TBI on Tlobs presumably represents a reduction in post-traumatic edema. This reduction in edema, along with the augmentation of CBF seen in normal rats at higher dosage (6 nmole), supports a role for adenosine in neuroprotection following TBI.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)187-189
Number of pages3
JournalActa Neurochirurgica, Supplement
Volume76
StatePublished - 2000
Externally publishedYes

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2-Chloroadenosine
Cerebrovascular Circulation
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Injections
Adenosine
Therapeutics
Edema
Wounds and Injuries
Traumatic Brain Injury
Contusions
Neuroprotective Agents
varespladib methyl
Hippocampus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)
  • Clinical Neurology

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Assessment of 2-chloroadenosine treatment after experimental traumatic brain injury in the rat using arterial spin-labeled MRI : a preliminary report. / Robertson, Courtney; Hendrich, K. S.; Kochanek, P. M.; Jackson, E. K.; Melick, J. A.; Graham, S. H.; Marion, D. W.; Williams, D. S.; Ho, C.

In: Acta Neurochirurgica, Supplement, Vol. 76, 2000, p. 187-189.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Robertson, C, Hendrich, KS, Kochanek, PM, Jackson, EK, Melick, JA, Graham, SH, Marion, DW, Williams, DS & Ho, C 2000, 'Assessment of 2-chloroadenosine treatment after experimental traumatic brain injury in the rat using arterial spin-labeled MRI: a preliminary report.', Acta Neurochirurgica, Supplement, vol. 76, pp. 187-189.
Robertson, Courtney ; Hendrich, K. S. ; Kochanek, P. M. ; Jackson, E. K. ; Melick, J. A. ; Graham, S. H. ; Marion, D. W. ; Williams, D. S. ; Ho, C. / Assessment of 2-chloroadenosine treatment after experimental traumatic brain injury in the rat using arterial spin-labeled MRI : a preliminary report. In: Acta Neurochirurgica, Supplement. 2000 ; Vol. 76. pp. 187-189.
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abstract = "Adenosine is a putative endogenous neuroprotectant. Its action at A1 receptors mitigates excitotoxicity while action at A2 receptors increases cerebral blood flow (CBF). We hypothesized that cerebral injection of the adenosine analog, 2-chloroadenosine, would decrease swelling and increase CBF early after experimental traumatic brain injury (TBI). To test this hypothesis, rats were anesthetized and subjected to TBI using a controlled cortical impact (CCI) model (n = 5/group). Immediately after injury, 2-chloroadenosine (0.3 nmole in 2 microliters) or an equal volume of vehicle were stereotactically injected lateral to the area of contusion. Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), in vivo spin-lattice relaxation time of tissue water (Tlobs) and CBF (arterial spin labeling) were measured in a 2-mm thick slice in the injured and non-injured hemispheres at 3-4 h after CCI. In a separate, preliminary experiment, the effect of 2-chloroadenosine injection in normal rat brain was studied. Rats (n = 2) were anesthetized and a burr hole was made for injection of 2-chloroadenosine into the same site as in the TBI model. One rat received the standard dose of 0.3 nmole and one rat received a 6 nmole injection. Tlobs and CBF studies were obtained 1.5-3.5 h after injection, using the same MRI methods as in the TBI study. In rats subjected to TBI, treatment with 2-chloroadenosine attenuated the increase in Tlobs after injury (p <0.05 for treatment vs vehicle) in both hippocampus and cortex ipsilateral to injury. However, treatment with 2-chloroadenosine did not improve post-traumatic hypoperfusion. In normal rats, injection of 0.3 nmole of 2-chloroadenosine did not increase CBF, but the higher dosage of 6 nmole dramatically increased hemispheric CBF by 1.5-2.0-fold. The effect of local injection of 2-chloroadenosine at a dose of 0.3 nmole after experimental TBI on Tlobs presumably represents a reduction in post-traumatic edema. This reduction in edema, along with the augmentation of CBF seen in normal rats at higher dosage (6 nmole), supports a role for adenosine in neuroprotection following TBI.",
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AU - Hendrich, K. S.

AU - Kochanek, P. M.

AU - Jackson, E. K.

AU - Melick, J. A.

AU - Graham, S. H.

AU - Marion, D. W.

AU - Williams, D. S.

AU - Ho, C.

PY - 2000

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N2 - Adenosine is a putative endogenous neuroprotectant. Its action at A1 receptors mitigates excitotoxicity while action at A2 receptors increases cerebral blood flow (CBF). We hypothesized that cerebral injection of the adenosine analog, 2-chloroadenosine, would decrease swelling and increase CBF early after experimental traumatic brain injury (TBI). To test this hypothesis, rats were anesthetized and subjected to TBI using a controlled cortical impact (CCI) model (n = 5/group). Immediately after injury, 2-chloroadenosine (0.3 nmole in 2 microliters) or an equal volume of vehicle were stereotactically injected lateral to the area of contusion. Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), in vivo spin-lattice relaxation time of tissue water (Tlobs) and CBF (arterial spin labeling) were measured in a 2-mm thick slice in the injured and non-injured hemispheres at 3-4 h after CCI. In a separate, preliminary experiment, the effect of 2-chloroadenosine injection in normal rat brain was studied. Rats (n = 2) were anesthetized and a burr hole was made for injection of 2-chloroadenosine into the same site as in the TBI model. One rat received the standard dose of 0.3 nmole and one rat received a 6 nmole injection. Tlobs and CBF studies were obtained 1.5-3.5 h after injection, using the same MRI methods as in the TBI study. In rats subjected to TBI, treatment with 2-chloroadenosine attenuated the increase in Tlobs after injury (p <0.05 for treatment vs vehicle) in both hippocampus and cortex ipsilateral to injury. However, treatment with 2-chloroadenosine did not improve post-traumatic hypoperfusion. In normal rats, injection of 0.3 nmole of 2-chloroadenosine did not increase CBF, but the higher dosage of 6 nmole dramatically increased hemispheric CBF by 1.5-2.0-fold. The effect of local injection of 2-chloroadenosine at a dose of 0.3 nmole after experimental TBI on Tlobs presumably represents a reduction in post-traumatic edema. This reduction in edema, along with the augmentation of CBF seen in normal rats at higher dosage (6 nmole), supports a role for adenosine in neuroprotection following TBI.

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