Assessment and validation of a microinjection method for kinetic analysis of [Ca2+](i) in individual cells undergoing apoptosis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

65 Scopus citations


Normal and malignant epithelial cells are induced to undergo apoptosis by a large variety of mechanistically diverse agents. Regardless of inducing agent, apoptosis characteristically occurs asynchronously within a population of epithelial cells over a period of 12-96 h and is associated with permeability and enzymatic perturbations. Pre-loading of cells with acetoxymethyl esters (AM) derivatives of fluorescent Ca2+ indicators (i.e. fura-2, indo-1, fluo-3) by passive diffusion allows longitudinal kinetic analysis of acute [Ca2+](i) changes subsequent to exposure to apoptosis inducing agents. Using prostate cancer cell lines, however, it is demonstrated that dye leakage and compartmentalization into organelles limit such passive loading to longitudinal [Ca2+](i) measurements of < 2 h. Post-loading of cells exposed to the apoptosis inducing agent for several hours is also inaccurate owing to decreased loading efficiency and de-esterification of the probes resulting in increased production of fluorescent Ca2+-insensitive dye species. To accurately measure kinetics of [Ca2+](i) changes longitudinally in individual cells undergoing apoptosis, cells were microinjected with fura dextran and maintained in a physiologic environment. [Ca2+](i) and morphological changes characteristic of apoptosis were then followed simultaneously in individual cells over several days following exposure to the apoptosis inducing agent.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)19-28
Number of pages10
JournalCell Calcium
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1999

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Molecular Biology
  • Cell Biology


Dive into the research topics of 'Assessment and validation of a microinjection method for kinetic analysis of [Ca2+](i) in individual cells undergoing apoptosis'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this