Assessment and speciation of chlorine demand in fresh-cut produce wash water

ShihChi Weng, Yaguang Luo, Jie Li, Bin Zhou, Joseph G. Jacangelo, Kellogg Schwab

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

For the fresh-cut produce industry, a critical area of concern is potential pathogen cross-contamination during wash operations when wash water is reused and re-circulated in wash systems continuously imputed with fresh-cut produce. However, little research has focused on the chemical properties of wash water. Organic input from residual soil and vegetable material deteriorates water quality and creates increasing chlorine demand within this wash water. This study evaluated the origins of chlorine demand input and chlorine decay kinetics of fresh-cut produce wash water. Using a model system, vegetable juice released per kg of processed produce for shredded romaine lettuce, shredded iceberg lettuce, shredded carrot and baby spinach was 82.1 mL/kg, 94.5 mL/kg, 158 mL/kg, and 2.26 mL/kg, respectively. Batch water analysis revealed a rapid reaction between constituents in the wash water and chlorine where over a 90 min observation period, 50% of chlorine demand occurred within first 5 min, underscoring the challenge for any water treatment process to reduce chlorine demand once vegetables are deposited into washing systems. Moreover, the results also showed sustained chlorine demand over 90-min periods, indicating an accumulative effect on chlorine consumption with continuous organic input. Additionally, HPLC-SEC analysis showed that the constituents contributing to chlorine demand are predominantly dissolved small molecules (

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)543-551
Number of pages9
JournalFood Control
Volume60
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 1 2016

Fingerprint

Chlorine
chlorine
Water
water
Lettuce
Vegetables
vegetables
romaine lettuce
vegetable juices
Ice Cover
fresh-cut produce
Lactuca sativa var. capitata
water analysis
Daucus carota
Spinacia oleracea
cross contamination
Water Purification
Water Quality
water treatment
spinach

Keywords

  • Chlorination
  • Chlorine demand
  • Fresh-cut produce
  • Wash water

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Biotechnology

Cite this

Assessment and speciation of chlorine demand in fresh-cut produce wash water. / Weng, ShihChi; Luo, Yaguang; Li, Jie; Zhou, Bin; Jacangelo, Joseph G.; Schwab, Kellogg.

In: Food Control, Vol. 60, 01.02.2016, p. 543-551.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Weng, ShihChi ; Luo, Yaguang ; Li, Jie ; Zhou, Bin ; Jacangelo, Joseph G. ; Schwab, Kellogg. / Assessment and speciation of chlorine demand in fresh-cut produce wash water. In: Food Control. 2016 ; Vol. 60. pp. 543-551.
@article{2f5f21c634214763acf7db87d00149de,
title = "Assessment and speciation of chlorine demand in fresh-cut produce wash water",
abstract = "For the fresh-cut produce industry, a critical area of concern is potential pathogen cross-contamination during wash operations when wash water is reused and re-circulated in wash systems continuously imputed with fresh-cut produce. However, little research has focused on the chemical properties of wash water. Organic input from residual soil and vegetable material deteriorates water quality and creates increasing chlorine demand within this wash water. This study evaluated the origins of chlorine demand input and chlorine decay kinetics of fresh-cut produce wash water. Using a model system, vegetable juice released per kg of processed produce for shredded romaine lettuce, shredded iceberg lettuce, shredded carrot and baby spinach was 82.1 mL/kg, 94.5 mL/kg, 158 mL/kg, and 2.26 mL/kg, respectively. Batch water analysis revealed a rapid reaction between constituents in the wash water and chlorine where over a 90 min observation period, 50{\%} of chlorine demand occurred within first 5 min, underscoring the challenge for any water treatment process to reduce chlorine demand once vegetables are deposited into washing systems. Moreover, the results also showed sustained chlorine demand over 90-min periods, indicating an accumulative effect on chlorine consumption with continuous organic input. Additionally, HPLC-SEC analysis showed that the constituents contributing to chlorine demand are predominantly dissolved small molecules (",
keywords = "Chlorination, Chlorine demand, Fresh-cut produce, Wash water",
author = "ShihChi Weng and Yaguang Luo and Jie Li and Bin Zhou and Jacangelo, {Joseph G.} and Kellogg Schwab",
year = "2016",
month = "2",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.foodcont.2015.08.031",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "60",
pages = "543--551",
journal = "Food Control",
issn = "0956-7135",
publisher = "Elsevier BV",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Assessment and speciation of chlorine demand in fresh-cut produce wash water

AU - Weng, ShihChi

AU - Luo, Yaguang

AU - Li, Jie

AU - Zhou, Bin

AU - Jacangelo, Joseph G.

AU - Schwab, Kellogg

PY - 2016/2/1

Y1 - 2016/2/1

N2 - For the fresh-cut produce industry, a critical area of concern is potential pathogen cross-contamination during wash operations when wash water is reused and re-circulated in wash systems continuously imputed with fresh-cut produce. However, little research has focused on the chemical properties of wash water. Organic input from residual soil and vegetable material deteriorates water quality and creates increasing chlorine demand within this wash water. This study evaluated the origins of chlorine demand input and chlorine decay kinetics of fresh-cut produce wash water. Using a model system, vegetable juice released per kg of processed produce for shredded romaine lettuce, shredded iceberg lettuce, shredded carrot and baby spinach was 82.1 mL/kg, 94.5 mL/kg, 158 mL/kg, and 2.26 mL/kg, respectively. Batch water analysis revealed a rapid reaction between constituents in the wash water and chlorine where over a 90 min observation period, 50% of chlorine demand occurred within first 5 min, underscoring the challenge for any water treatment process to reduce chlorine demand once vegetables are deposited into washing systems. Moreover, the results also showed sustained chlorine demand over 90-min periods, indicating an accumulative effect on chlorine consumption with continuous organic input. Additionally, HPLC-SEC analysis showed that the constituents contributing to chlorine demand are predominantly dissolved small molecules (

AB - For the fresh-cut produce industry, a critical area of concern is potential pathogen cross-contamination during wash operations when wash water is reused and re-circulated in wash systems continuously imputed with fresh-cut produce. However, little research has focused on the chemical properties of wash water. Organic input from residual soil and vegetable material deteriorates water quality and creates increasing chlorine demand within this wash water. This study evaluated the origins of chlorine demand input and chlorine decay kinetics of fresh-cut produce wash water. Using a model system, vegetable juice released per kg of processed produce for shredded romaine lettuce, shredded iceberg lettuce, shredded carrot and baby spinach was 82.1 mL/kg, 94.5 mL/kg, 158 mL/kg, and 2.26 mL/kg, respectively. Batch water analysis revealed a rapid reaction between constituents in the wash water and chlorine where over a 90 min observation period, 50% of chlorine demand occurred within first 5 min, underscoring the challenge for any water treatment process to reduce chlorine demand once vegetables are deposited into washing systems. Moreover, the results also showed sustained chlorine demand over 90-min periods, indicating an accumulative effect on chlorine consumption with continuous organic input. Additionally, HPLC-SEC analysis showed that the constituents contributing to chlorine demand are predominantly dissolved small molecules (

KW - Chlorination

KW - Chlorine demand

KW - Fresh-cut produce

KW - Wash water

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84941058035&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84941058035&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.foodcont.2015.08.031

DO - 10.1016/j.foodcont.2015.08.031

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:84941058035

VL - 60

SP - 543

EP - 551

JO - Food Control

JF - Food Control

SN - 0956-7135

ER -