Objective: Cognitive dysfunction is prevalent in multiple sclerosis. As self-reported cognitive functioning is unreliable, brief objective screening measures are needed. Utilizing widely used full-length neuropsychological tests, this study aimed to establish the criterion validity of highly abbreviated versions of the Brief Visuospatial Memory Test – Revised (BVMT-R), Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT), Delis–Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS) Sorting Test, and Controlled Oral Word Association Test (COWAT) in order to begin developing an MS-specific screening battery. Method: Participants from Holy Name Medical Center and the Kessler Foundation were administered one or more of these four measures. Using test-specific criterion to identify impairment at both −1.5 and −2.0 SD, receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) analyses of BVMT-R Trial 1, Trial 2, and Trial 1 + 2 raw data (N = 286) were run to calculate the classification accuracy of the abbreviated version, as well as the sensitivity and specificity. The same methods were used for SDMT 30-s and 60-s (N = 321), D-KEFS Sorting Free Card Sort 1 (N = 120), and COWAT letters F and A (N = 298). Results: Using these definitions of impairment, each analysis yielded high classification accuracy (89.3 to 94.3%). Conclusions: BVMT-R Trial 1, SDMT 30-s, D-KEFS Free Card Sort 1, and COWAT F possess good criterion validity in detecting impairment on their respective overall measure, capturing much of the same information as the full version. Along with the first two trials of the California Verbal Learning Test – Second Edition (CVLT-II), these five highly abbreviated measures may be used to develop a brief screening battery.
- executive function
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Psychiatry and Mental health
- Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology
- Clinical Psychology
- Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
- Developmental and Educational Psychology