Assessing management support for worksite health promotion: Psychometric analysis of the leading by example (LBE) instrument

Lindsay J. Delia, David M. DeJoy, Ron Z. Goetzel, Ronald J. Ozminkowski, Mark G. Wilson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Purpose. Describe the development of the hading by example (LBE) instrument. Methods. A total of 135 responses from employees of a private corporation working at 11 different worksites were factor analyzed in 2005. Exploratory factor analysis was used to obtain an initial factor structure. Factor validity was evaluated using confirmatory factor analysis methods. A second sample was collected in 2006 from the same population (N = 178) and was used to confirm the factor structure via confirmatory factor analysis. Cronbach's α and item-total correlations provided information on the reliability of the factor subscales. Results. Four subscales were identified: business alignment with health promotion objectives, awareness of the health-productivity link, worksite support for health promotion, and leadership support for health promotion. Factor by group comparisons revealed that the initial factor structure was effective in detecting differences in organizational support for health promotion across different employee groups. Conclusions. Management support for health promotion can be assessed using the LBE, a brief, self-report questionnaire. Researchers can use the LBE to diagnose, track, and evaluate worksite health promotion programs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)359-367
Number of pages9
JournalAmerican Journal of Health Promotion
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 1 2008
Externally publishedYes


  • Instrument development
  • Management support
  • Prevention research
  • Worksite

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health(social science)
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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