Assessing body image in patients with systemic sclerosis (scleroderma): Validation of the Adapted Satisfaction with Appearance Scale

Leslie J. Heinberg, Ian Kudel, Barbara White, Amy Kwan, Keya Medley, Fredrick Wigley, Jennifer Haythornthwaite

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


People with scleroderma often experience disfiguring appearance-related changes in socially visible and interpersonally salient areas. Although disfigurement can lead to body image dissatisfaction, this phenomenon has not been well investigated due to the lack of a disfigurement-specific measure. The Satisfaction With Appearance (SWAP) scale, previously developed in burn survivors, was adapted and administered to 254 participants with scleroderma to evaluate its psychometric integrity and its validity for use in a different medical population that experiences changes in appearance. Principal component analysis revealed two factors - Subjective Dissatisfaction and Perceived Social Impact - rather than the four found in burn victims. Excellent estimates of internal consistency and temporal stability and strong evidence for the reliability of the two-factor solution were found. The resulting factor structure in a scleroderma population suggests that differing medical conditions may create alternate constellations of BID, reflects the need for body image researchers to assess psychometrics across medical populations and may have clinical implications for BID interventions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)79-86
Number of pages8
JournalBody Image
Issue number1
StatePublished - Mar 1 2007



  • Assessment
  • Body image
  • Disfigurement
  • Scleroderma
  • Social impact
  • Systemic sclerosis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Psychology
  • Applied Psychology
  • Psychology(all)

Cite this