Background: NSAIDs appear to moderately reduce prostate cancer risk. However, evidence is limited on whether NSAIDs protect against prostate cancer mortality (death from prostate cancer among men without a cancer history) and case fatality (death from prostate cancer among men with prostate cancer), and whether benefits are consistent in white and black men. This study investigated associations of aspirin and non-aspirin (NA) NSAID use with prostate cancer incidence, mortality, and case fatality in a population-based cohort of white and black men. Methods: We included 6,594 men (5,060 white and 1,534 black) from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study without a cancer history at enrollment from 1987 to 1989. NSAID use was assessed at four study visits (1987–1998). Cancer outcomes were ascertained through 2012. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate adjusted HRs, overall and by race. Results: Aspirin use was not associated with prostate cancer incidence. However, aspirin use was inversely associated with prostate cancer mortality [HR, 0.59; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.36–0.96]. This association was consistent among white and black men and appeared restricted to men using aspirin daily and/or for cardiovascular disease prevention. Aspirin use was inversely associated with case fatality (HR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.22–0.94). NA-NSAID use was not associated with these endpoints. Conclusions: Aspirin use was inversely associated with prostate cancer mortality and case fatality among white and black men. Impact: If confirmed by additional studies, benefits of aspirin for preventing prostate cancer mortality may need to be factored into risk–benefit calculations of men considering an aspirin regimen.
ASJC Scopus subject areas