AVMs are congenital lesions that may grow with age and present with a number of ophthalmologic or neurologic symptoms. Treatment is directed at preventing intracranial hemorrhage and reducing functional morbidity. Carotid-cavernous fistulae may result from trauma or occur spontaneously, with high or low flow respectively. Many lesions will resolve with conservative management, but treatment is indicated when ophthalmic complications such as glaucoma occur. Long-term outcome of treatment in both conditions is excellent, with modern interventional neuroradiologic and radiosurgical techniques complementing the talents of the orbital surgeon and neurosurgeon.
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