Arteriovenous malformations and carotid-cavernous fistulae

Prem S. Subramanian, Zoë R. Williams

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


AVMs are congenital lesions that may grow with age and present with a number of ophthalmologic or neurologic symptoms. Treatment is directed at preventing intracranial hemorrhage and reducing functional morbidity. Carotid-cavernous fistulae may result from trauma or occur spontaneously, with high or low flow respectively. Many lesions will resolve with conservative management, but treatment is indicated when ophthalmic complications such as glaucoma occur. Long-term outcome of treatment in both conditions is excellent, with modern interventional neuroradiologic and radiosurgical techniques complementing the talents of the orbital surgeon and neurosurgeon.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)81-102
Number of pages22
JournalInternational ophthalmology clinics
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jun 2009
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology


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