BACKGROUND: Mean arterial pressure (MAP) below the lower limit of cerebral autoregulation during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is associated with complications after cardiac surgery. However, simply raising empiric MAP targets during CPB might result in MAP above the upper limit of autoregulation (ULA), causing cerebral hyperperfusion in some patients and predisposing them to cerebral dysfunction after surgery. We hypothesized that MAP above an ULA during CPB is associated with postoperative delirium.
METHODS: Autoregulation during CPB was monitored continuously in 491 patients with the cerebral oximetry index (COx) in this prospective observational study. COx represents Pearson's correlation coefficient between low-frequency changes in regional cerebral oxygen saturation (measured with near-infrared spectroscopy) and MAP. Delirium was defined throughout the postoperative hospitalization based on clinical detection with prospectively defined methods.
RESULTS: Delirium was observed in 45 (9.2%) patients. Mechanical ventilation for >48 h [odds ratio (OR), 3.94; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.72-9.03], preoperative antidepressant use (OR, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.29-6.96), prior stroke (OR, 2.79; 95% CI, 1.12-6.96), congestive heart failure (OR, 2.68; 95% CI, 1.28-5.62), the product of the magnitude and duration of MAP above an ULA (mm Hg h; OR, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.03-1.15), and age (per year of age; OR, 1.01; 95% CI, 1.01-1.07) were independently associated with postoperative delirium.
CONCLUSIONS: Excursions of MAP above the upper limit of cerebral autoregulation during CPB are associated with risk for delirium. Optimizing MAP during CPB to remain within the cerebral autoregulation range might reduce risk of delirium.
CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov NCT00769691 and NCT00981474.
- cardiac surgery
- cardiopulmonary bypass
- cerebral autoregulation
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine