Dynamic glucose-enhanced (DGE) imaging uses chemical exchange saturation transfer magnetic resonance imaging to retrieve information about the microcirculation using infusion of a natural sugar (D-glucose). However, this new approach is not yet well understood with respect to the dynamic tissue response. DGE time curves for arteries, normal brain tissue, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were analyzed in healthy volunteers and compared with the time dependence of sampled venous plasma blood glucose levels. The arterial response curves (arterial input function [AIF]) compared reasonably well in shape with the time curves of the sampled glucose levels but could also differ substantially. The brain tissue response curves showed mainly negative responses with a peak intensity that was of the order of 10 times smaller than the AIF peak and a shape that was susceptible to both noise and partial volume effects with CSF, attributed to the low contrast-to-noise ratio. The CSF response curves showed a rather large and steady increase of the glucose uptake during the scan, due to the rapid uptake of D-glucose in CSF. Importantly, and contrary to gadolinium studies, the curves differed substantially among volunteers, which was interpreted to be caused by variations in insulin response. In conclusion, while AIFs and tissue response curves can be measured in DGE experiments, partial volume effects, low concentration of D-glucose in tissue, and osmolality effects between tissue and blood may prohibit quantification of normal tissue perfusion parameters. However, separation of tumor responses from normal tissue responses would most likely be feasible.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging