BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Depression and anxiety are common psychiatric conditions among US adults, and anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) is one of the most commonly performed spinal surgeries. Mental health conditions can affect physical health, and thus have the potential to contribute to adverse outcomes after spine surgery; however, a comprehensive assessment of long-term outcomes and the additive economic burden of these conditions in patients undergoing ACDF has not been well described. PURPOSE: Our goal was to assess the associations between depression/anxiety and adverse outcomes and health-resource utilization after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective database study. PATIENT SAMPLE: We retrospectively analyzed a private administrative health claims database to identify patients who underwent ACDF in the United States from 2010 to 2013. A total of 16,306 patients met our inclusion criteria. Mean (± standard deviation) patient age was 50±7.9 years. Approximately 4,800 patients (30%) had a depression diagnosis and 4,000 (25%) had a diagnosis of anxiety. OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcomes of interest were intensive care unit admission, multiday hospitalization, discharge disposition, 30- and 90-day hospital readmission, 1- and 2-year rates of revision surgery, and chronic postoperative opioid use. Secondary outcomes were 1- and 2-year total cumulative health care payments and cumulative postoperative opioid consumption. METHODS: Regression models controlled for demographic and medical covariates, alpha=0.05. RESULTS: A preoperative diagnosis of depression was associated with higher odds of multiday hospitalization (odds ratio [OR] 1.09, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01–1.19), 90-day readmission (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.46–2.02), revision surgery within 2 years (OR 1.43 95% CI 1.16–1.76), and chronic postoperative opioid use (OR 1.58, 95% CI 1.45–1.72) and an increase of $5,915 in adjusted 2-year health care payments (p<.001). Patients with a preoperative diagnosis of anxiety had higher odds of multiday hospitalization (OR 1.15, 95% CI 1.06–1.25), revision surgery within 2 years (OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.07–1.65), and chronic postoperative opioid use (OR 1.62, 95% CI 1.48–1.77) and an increase of $4,471 in adjusted 2-year health care payments (p<.001). Neither anxiety nor depression was associated with intensive care unit admission, discharge disposition, 30-day readmission, revision surgery within 1 year, 1-year cumulative health care payments, or cumulative postoperative opioid consumption. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with preoperative diagnoses of depression or anxiety have a greater likelihood of adverse outcomes, increased opioid consumption, and increased cumulative health care payments after ACDF compared with patients without depression or anxiety.
- Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion
- Health care payments
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
- Clinical Neurology