Application of optical coherence tomography in the detection and classification of cognitive decline

Moon J. Lee, Alison Gump Abraham, Bonnielin Swenor, A. Richey Sharrett, Pradeep Ramulu

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Abstract

Aim: This review aims to critically analyze the current literature on the relationship of optical coherence tomography (OCT) measures to cognition and dementia. Background: Optical coherence tomography, a noninvasive method of imaging neuroretinal layers, and OCT angiography, a highly precise method of examining retinal vasculature, have widely been used to aid in the diagnosis and monitoring of a variety of ocular diseases. There is now an increasing body of evidence relating the structural and microvascular changes of the retina to cognitive impairment. Review results: In general, several studies have found decreased retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and an association between RNFL thickness and continuous measures of cognitive ability, though findings were inconsistent across studies. In many studies, associations were found for specific regions of the RNFL but not with overall thickness. Studies linking OCT measures to non-Alzheimer’s dementia were lacking, and limited work has been done on persons with past cognitive decline but who remain cognitively normal (the ideal stage at which to target treatment). Common limitations of prior studies include a failure to account for intraocular pressure (IOP) and axial length. Conclusion: Current research suggests a potential association between retinal findings observed on OCT and cognitive impairment. Methodologically robust research accounting for important covariates and looking at changes in OCT and/ or cognition is needed to better characterize the association between OCT and cognitive ability. Clinical significance: Further research is warranted to determine whether OCT findings can help identify the etiology of cognitive decline and/or serve as objective markers of AD. If this is the case, OCT may also help identify the presence of disease processes in cognitively normal individuals.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)10-18
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Current Glaucoma Practice
Volume12
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 1 2018

Fingerprint

Optical Coherence Tomography
Nerve Fibers
Aptitude
Cognition
Dementia
Alzheimer Disease
Research
Cognitive Dysfunction
Eye Diseases
Intraocular Pressure
Retina
Angiography

Keywords

  • Alzheimer’s disease
  • Cognitive impairment
  • Dementia
  • Literature review
  • Optical coherence tomography (OCT)
  • Retinal nerve fiber layer

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology

Cite this

Application of optical coherence tomography in the detection and classification of cognitive decline. / Lee, Moon J.; Abraham, Alison Gump; Swenor, Bonnielin; Sharrett, A. Richey; Ramulu, Pradeep.

In: Journal of Current Glaucoma Practice, Vol. 12, No. 1, 01.04.2018, p. 10-18.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

@article{05fa9e03b6dc49c8818b5082c63d1422,
title = "Application of optical coherence tomography in the detection and classification of cognitive decline",
abstract = "Aim: This review aims to critically analyze the current literature on the relationship of optical coherence tomography (OCT) measures to cognition and dementia. Background: Optical coherence tomography, a noninvasive method of imaging neuroretinal layers, and OCT angiography, a highly precise method of examining retinal vasculature, have widely been used to aid in the diagnosis and monitoring of a variety of ocular diseases. There is now an increasing body of evidence relating the structural and microvascular changes of the retina to cognitive impairment. Review results: In general, several studies have found decreased retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and an association between RNFL thickness and continuous measures of cognitive ability, though findings were inconsistent across studies. In many studies, associations were found for specific regions of the RNFL but not with overall thickness. Studies linking OCT measures to non-Alzheimer’s dementia were lacking, and limited work has been done on persons with past cognitive decline but who remain cognitively normal (the ideal stage at which to target treatment). Common limitations of prior studies include a failure to account for intraocular pressure (IOP) and axial length. Conclusion: Current research suggests a potential association between retinal findings observed on OCT and cognitive impairment. Methodologically robust research accounting for important covariates and looking at changes in OCT and/ or cognition is needed to better characterize the association between OCT and cognitive ability. Clinical significance: Further research is warranted to determine whether OCT findings can help identify the etiology of cognitive decline and/or serve as objective markers of AD. If this is the case, OCT may also help identify the presence of disease processes in cognitively normal individuals.",
keywords = "Alzheimer’s disease, Cognitive impairment, Dementia, Literature review, Optical coherence tomography (OCT), Retinal nerve fiber layer",
author = "Lee, {Moon J.} and Abraham, {Alison Gump} and Bonnielin Swenor and Sharrett, {A. Richey} and Pradeep Ramulu",
year = "2018",
month = "4",
day = "1",
doi = "10.5005/jp-journals-10028-1238",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "12",
pages = "10--18",
journal = "Journal of Current Glaucoma Practice",
issn = "0974-0333",
publisher = "Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd",
number = "1",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Application of optical coherence tomography in the detection and classification of cognitive decline

AU - Lee, Moon J.

AU - Abraham, Alison Gump

AU - Swenor, Bonnielin

AU - Sharrett, A. Richey

AU - Ramulu, Pradeep

PY - 2018/4/1

Y1 - 2018/4/1

N2 - Aim: This review aims to critically analyze the current literature on the relationship of optical coherence tomography (OCT) measures to cognition and dementia. Background: Optical coherence tomography, a noninvasive method of imaging neuroretinal layers, and OCT angiography, a highly precise method of examining retinal vasculature, have widely been used to aid in the diagnosis and monitoring of a variety of ocular diseases. There is now an increasing body of evidence relating the structural and microvascular changes of the retina to cognitive impairment. Review results: In general, several studies have found decreased retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and an association between RNFL thickness and continuous measures of cognitive ability, though findings were inconsistent across studies. In many studies, associations were found for specific regions of the RNFL but not with overall thickness. Studies linking OCT measures to non-Alzheimer’s dementia were lacking, and limited work has been done on persons with past cognitive decline but who remain cognitively normal (the ideal stage at which to target treatment). Common limitations of prior studies include a failure to account for intraocular pressure (IOP) and axial length. Conclusion: Current research suggests a potential association between retinal findings observed on OCT and cognitive impairment. Methodologically robust research accounting for important covariates and looking at changes in OCT and/ or cognition is needed to better characterize the association between OCT and cognitive ability. Clinical significance: Further research is warranted to determine whether OCT findings can help identify the etiology of cognitive decline and/or serve as objective markers of AD. If this is the case, OCT may also help identify the presence of disease processes in cognitively normal individuals.

AB - Aim: This review aims to critically analyze the current literature on the relationship of optical coherence tomography (OCT) measures to cognition and dementia. Background: Optical coherence tomography, a noninvasive method of imaging neuroretinal layers, and OCT angiography, a highly precise method of examining retinal vasculature, have widely been used to aid in the diagnosis and monitoring of a variety of ocular diseases. There is now an increasing body of evidence relating the structural and microvascular changes of the retina to cognitive impairment. Review results: In general, several studies have found decreased retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and an association between RNFL thickness and continuous measures of cognitive ability, though findings were inconsistent across studies. In many studies, associations were found for specific regions of the RNFL but not with overall thickness. Studies linking OCT measures to non-Alzheimer’s dementia were lacking, and limited work has been done on persons with past cognitive decline but who remain cognitively normal (the ideal stage at which to target treatment). Common limitations of prior studies include a failure to account for intraocular pressure (IOP) and axial length. Conclusion: Current research suggests a potential association between retinal findings observed on OCT and cognitive impairment. Methodologically robust research accounting for important covariates and looking at changes in OCT and/ or cognition is needed to better characterize the association between OCT and cognitive ability. Clinical significance: Further research is warranted to determine whether OCT findings can help identify the etiology of cognitive decline and/or serve as objective markers of AD. If this is the case, OCT may also help identify the presence of disease processes in cognitively normal individuals.

KW - Alzheimer’s disease

KW - Cognitive impairment

KW - Dementia

KW - Literature review

KW - Optical coherence tomography (OCT)

KW - Retinal nerve fiber layer

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85055234081&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85055234081&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.5005/jp-journals-10028-1238

DO - 10.5005/jp-journals-10028-1238

M3 - Review article

C2 - 29861577

AN - SCOPUS:85055234081

VL - 12

SP - 10

EP - 18

JO - Journal of Current Glaucoma Practice

JF - Journal of Current Glaucoma Practice

SN - 0974-0333

IS - 1

ER -