Anxiety, a benefit and detriment to cognition

Behavioral and magnetoencephalographic evidence from a mixed-saccade task

Brian R. Cornwell, Sven C. Mueller, Raphael Kaplan, Christian Grillon, Monique Ernst

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Anxiety is typically considered an impediment to cognition. We propose anxiety-related impairments in cognitive-behavioral performance are the consequences of enhanced stimulus-driven attention. Accordingly, reflexive, habitual behaviors that rely on stimulus-driven mechanisms should be facilitated in an anxious state, while novel, flexible behaviors that compete with the former should be impaired. To test these predictions, healthy adults (N=17) performed a mixed-saccade task, which pits habitual actions (pro-saccades) against atypical ones (anti-saccades), under anxiety-inducing threat of shock and safe conditions. Whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG) captured oscillatory responses in the preparatory interval preceding target onset and saccade execution. Results showed threat-induced anxiety differentially impacted response times based on the type of saccade initiated, slowing anti-saccades but facilitating erroneous pro-saccades on anti-saccade trials. MEG source analyses revealed that successful suppression of reflexive pro-saccades and correct initiation of anti-saccades during threat was marked by increased theta power in right ventrolateral prefrontal cortical and midbrain regions (superior colliculi) implicated in stimulus-driven attention. Theta activity may delay stimulus-driven processes to enable generation of an anti-saccade. Moreover, compared to safety, threat reduced beta desynchronization in inferior parietal cortices during anti-saccade preparation but increased it during pro-saccade preparation. Differential effects in inferior parietal cortices indicate a greater readiness to execute anti-saccades during safety and to execute pro-saccades during threat. These findings suggest that, in an anxiety state, reduced cognitive-behavioral flexibility may stem from enhanced stimulus-driven attention, which may serve the adaptive function of optimizing threat detection.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)257-267
Number of pages11
JournalBrain and Cognition
Volume78
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 2012
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Saccades
Cognition
Anxiety
Magnetoencephalography
Parietal Lobe
Detriment
Threat
Stimulus
Safety
Superior Colliculi
Mesencephalon
Reaction Time

Keywords

  • Anxiety
  • Beta oscillation
  • Magnetoencephalography
  • Saccadic eye movement
  • Stimulus-driven attention
  • Theta oscillation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cognitive Neuroscience
  • Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
  • Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology
  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology

Cite this

Anxiety, a benefit and detriment to cognition : Behavioral and magnetoencephalographic evidence from a mixed-saccade task. / Cornwell, Brian R.; Mueller, Sven C.; Kaplan, Raphael; Grillon, Christian; Ernst, Monique.

In: Brain and Cognition, Vol. 78, No. 3, 04.2012, p. 257-267.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Cornwell, Brian R. ; Mueller, Sven C. ; Kaplan, Raphael ; Grillon, Christian ; Ernst, Monique. / Anxiety, a benefit and detriment to cognition : Behavioral and magnetoencephalographic evidence from a mixed-saccade task. In: Brain and Cognition. 2012 ; Vol. 78, No. 3. pp. 257-267.
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