Antiretroviral preexposure prophylaxis for heterosexual HIV transmission in Botswana

Michael C. Thigpen, Poloko M. Kebaabetswe, Lynn A. Paxton, Dawn K. Smith, Charles E. Rose, Tebogo M. Segolodi, Faith L. Henderson, Sonal R. Pathak, Fatma A. Soud, Kata L. Chillag, Rodreck Mutanhaurwa, Lovemore Ian Chirwa, Michael Kasonde, Daniel Abebe, Evans Buliva, Roman J. Gvetadze, Sandra Johnson, Thom Sukalac, Vasavi T. Thomas, Clyde HartJeffrey A. Johnson, C. Kevin Malotte, Craig W. Hendrix, John T. Brooks

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BACKGROUND: Preexposure prophylaxis with antiretroviral agents has been shown to reduce the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among men who have sex with men; however, the efficacy among heterosexuals is uncertain. METHODS:We randomly assigned HIV-seronegative men and women to receive either tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and emtricitabine (TDF-FTC) or matching placebo once daily. Monthly study visits were scheduled, and participants received a comprehensive package of prevention services, including HIV testing, counseling on adherence to medication, management of sexually transmitted infections, monitoring for adverse events, and individualized counseling on risk reduction; bone mineral density testing was performed semiannually in a subgroup of participants. RESULTS:A total of 1219 men and women underwent randomization (45.7% women) and were followed for 1563 person-years (median, 1.1 years; maximum, 3.7 years). Because of low retention and logistic limitations, we concluded the study early and followed enrolled participants through an orderly study closure rather than expanding enrollment. The TDF-FTC group had higher rates of nausea (18.5% vs. 7.1%, P<0.001), vomiting (11.3% vs. 7.1%, P = 0.008), and dizziness (15.1% vs. 11.0%, P = 0.03) than the placebo group, but the rates of serious adverse events were similar (P = 0.90). Participants who received TDF-FTC, as compared with those who received placebo, had a significant decline in bone mineral density. K65R, M184V, and A62V resistance mutations developed in 1 participant in the TDF-FTC group who had had an unrecognized acute HIV infection at enrollment. In a modified intention-to-treat analysis that included the 33 participants who became infected during the study (9 in the TDF-FTC group and 24 in the placebo group; 1.2 and 3.1 infections per 100 person-years, respectively), the efficacy of TDF-FTC was 62.2% (95% confidence interval, 21.5 to 83.4; P = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS:Daily TDF-FTC prophylaxis prevented HIV infection in sexually active heterosexual adults. The long-term safety of daily TDF-FTC prophylaxis, including the effect on bone mineral density, remains unknown. (Funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institutes of Health; TDF2 number, NCT00448669.)

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)423-434
Number of pages12
JournalNew England Journal of Medicine
Issue number5
StatePublished - Aug 2 2012

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

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    Thigpen, M. C., Kebaabetswe, P. M., Paxton, L. A., Smith, D. K., Rose, C. E., Segolodi, T. M., Henderson, F. L., Pathak, S. R., Soud, F. A., Chillag, K. L., Mutanhaurwa, R., Chirwa, L. I., Kasonde, M., Abebe, D., Buliva, E., Gvetadze, R. J., Johnson, S., Sukalac, T., Thomas, V. T., ... Brooks, J. T. (2012). Antiretroviral preexposure prophylaxis for heterosexual HIV transmission in Botswana. New England Journal of Medicine, 367(5), 423-434.