Antipsychotics for treating delirium in hospitalized adults a systematic review

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Abstract

Background: Delirium is common in hospitalized patients and is associated with worse outcomes. Antipsychotics are commonly used; however, the associated benefits and harms are unclear. Purpose: To conduct a systematic review evaluating the benefits and harms of antipsychotics to treat delirium in adults. Data Sources: PubMed, Embase, CENTRAL, CINAHL, and Psyc- INFO from inception to July 2019 without language restrictions. Study Selection: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of antipsychotic versus placebo or another antipsychotic, and prospective observational studies reporting harms. Data Extraction: One reviewer extracted data and assessed strength of evidence (SOE) for critical outcomes, with confirmation by another reviewer. Risk of bias was assessed independently by 2 reviewers. Data Synthesis: Across 16 RCTs and 10 observational studies of hospitalized adults, there was no difference in sedation status (low and moderate SOE), delirium duration, hospital length of stay (moderate SOE), or mortality between haloperidol and second-generation antipsychotics versus placebo. There was no difference in delirium severity (moderate SOE) and cognitive functioning (low SOE) for haloperidol versus second-generation antipsychotics, with insufficient or no evidence for antipsychotics versus placebo. For direct comparisons of different secondgeneration antipsychotics, there was no difference in mortality and insufficient or no evidence for multiple other outcomes. There was little evidence demonstrating neurologic harms associated with short-term use of antipsychotics for treating delirium in adult inpatients, but potentially harmful cardiac effects tended to occur more frequently. Limitations: Heterogeneity was present in terms of dose and administration route of antipsychotics, outcomes, and measurement instruments. There was insufficient or no evidence regarding multiple clinically important outcomes. Conclusion: Current evidence does not support routine use of haloperidol or second-generation antipsychotics to treat delirium in adult inpatients.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)485-494
Number of pages10
JournalAnnals of internal medicine
Volume171
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 1 2019

Fingerprint

Delirium
Antipsychotic Agents
Haloperidol
Placebos
Observational Studies
Inpatients
Length of Stay
Randomized Controlled Trials
Mortality
Information Storage and Retrieval
PubMed
Nervous System
Language
Prospective Studies

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine

Cite this

Antipsychotics for treating delirium in hospitalized adults a systematic review. / Nikooie, Roozbeh; Neufeld, Karin Jane; Oh, Esther; Wilson, Lisa; Zhang, Allen; Robinson, Karen A; Needham, Dale.

In: Annals of internal medicine, Vol. 171, No. 7, 01.10.2019, p. 485-494.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

@article{d90bbf43b3cc4558b9f46a081ffc0fb5,
title = "Antipsychotics for treating delirium in hospitalized adults a systematic review",
abstract = "Background: Delirium is common in hospitalized patients and is associated with worse outcomes. Antipsychotics are commonly used; however, the associated benefits and harms are unclear. Purpose: To conduct a systematic review evaluating the benefits and harms of antipsychotics to treat delirium in adults. Data Sources: PubMed, Embase, CENTRAL, CINAHL, and Psyc- INFO from inception to July 2019 without language restrictions. Study Selection: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of antipsychotic versus placebo or another antipsychotic, and prospective observational studies reporting harms. Data Extraction: One reviewer extracted data and assessed strength of evidence (SOE) for critical outcomes, with confirmation by another reviewer. Risk of bias was assessed independently by 2 reviewers. Data Synthesis: Across 16 RCTs and 10 observational studies of hospitalized adults, there was no difference in sedation status (low and moderate SOE), delirium duration, hospital length of stay (moderate SOE), or mortality between haloperidol and second-generation antipsychotics versus placebo. There was no difference in delirium severity (moderate SOE) and cognitive functioning (low SOE) for haloperidol versus second-generation antipsychotics, with insufficient or no evidence for antipsychotics versus placebo. For direct comparisons of different secondgeneration antipsychotics, there was no difference in mortality and insufficient or no evidence for multiple other outcomes. There was little evidence demonstrating neurologic harms associated with short-term use of antipsychotics for treating delirium in adult inpatients, but potentially harmful cardiac effects tended to occur more frequently. Limitations: Heterogeneity was present in terms of dose and administration route of antipsychotics, outcomes, and measurement instruments. There was insufficient or no evidence regarding multiple clinically important outcomes. Conclusion: Current evidence does not support routine use of haloperidol or second-generation antipsychotics to treat delirium in adult inpatients.",
author = "Roozbeh Nikooie and Neufeld, {Karin Jane} and Esther Oh and Lisa Wilson and Allen Zhang and Robinson, {Karen A} and Dale Needham",
year = "2019",
month = "10",
day = "1",
doi = "10.7326/M19-1860",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "171",
pages = "485--494",
journal = "Annals of Internal Medicine",
issn = "0003-4819",
publisher = "American College of Physicians",
number = "7",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Antipsychotics for treating delirium in hospitalized adults a systematic review

AU - Nikooie, Roozbeh

AU - Neufeld, Karin Jane

AU - Oh, Esther

AU - Wilson, Lisa

AU - Zhang, Allen

AU - Robinson, Karen A

AU - Needham, Dale

PY - 2019/10/1

Y1 - 2019/10/1

N2 - Background: Delirium is common in hospitalized patients and is associated with worse outcomes. Antipsychotics are commonly used; however, the associated benefits and harms are unclear. Purpose: To conduct a systematic review evaluating the benefits and harms of antipsychotics to treat delirium in adults. Data Sources: PubMed, Embase, CENTRAL, CINAHL, and Psyc- INFO from inception to July 2019 without language restrictions. Study Selection: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of antipsychotic versus placebo or another antipsychotic, and prospective observational studies reporting harms. Data Extraction: One reviewer extracted data and assessed strength of evidence (SOE) for critical outcomes, with confirmation by another reviewer. Risk of bias was assessed independently by 2 reviewers. Data Synthesis: Across 16 RCTs and 10 observational studies of hospitalized adults, there was no difference in sedation status (low and moderate SOE), delirium duration, hospital length of stay (moderate SOE), or mortality between haloperidol and second-generation antipsychotics versus placebo. There was no difference in delirium severity (moderate SOE) and cognitive functioning (low SOE) for haloperidol versus second-generation antipsychotics, with insufficient or no evidence for antipsychotics versus placebo. For direct comparisons of different secondgeneration antipsychotics, there was no difference in mortality and insufficient or no evidence for multiple other outcomes. There was little evidence demonstrating neurologic harms associated with short-term use of antipsychotics for treating delirium in adult inpatients, but potentially harmful cardiac effects tended to occur more frequently. Limitations: Heterogeneity was present in terms of dose and administration route of antipsychotics, outcomes, and measurement instruments. There was insufficient or no evidence regarding multiple clinically important outcomes. Conclusion: Current evidence does not support routine use of haloperidol or second-generation antipsychotics to treat delirium in adult inpatients.

AB - Background: Delirium is common in hospitalized patients and is associated with worse outcomes. Antipsychotics are commonly used; however, the associated benefits and harms are unclear. Purpose: To conduct a systematic review evaluating the benefits and harms of antipsychotics to treat delirium in adults. Data Sources: PubMed, Embase, CENTRAL, CINAHL, and Psyc- INFO from inception to July 2019 without language restrictions. Study Selection: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of antipsychotic versus placebo or another antipsychotic, and prospective observational studies reporting harms. Data Extraction: One reviewer extracted data and assessed strength of evidence (SOE) for critical outcomes, with confirmation by another reviewer. Risk of bias was assessed independently by 2 reviewers. Data Synthesis: Across 16 RCTs and 10 observational studies of hospitalized adults, there was no difference in sedation status (low and moderate SOE), delirium duration, hospital length of stay (moderate SOE), or mortality between haloperidol and second-generation antipsychotics versus placebo. There was no difference in delirium severity (moderate SOE) and cognitive functioning (low SOE) for haloperidol versus second-generation antipsychotics, with insufficient or no evidence for antipsychotics versus placebo. For direct comparisons of different secondgeneration antipsychotics, there was no difference in mortality and insufficient or no evidence for multiple other outcomes. There was little evidence demonstrating neurologic harms associated with short-term use of antipsychotics for treating delirium in adult inpatients, but potentially harmful cardiac effects tended to occur more frequently. Limitations: Heterogeneity was present in terms of dose and administration route of antipsychotics, outcomes, and measurement instruments. There was insufficient or no evidence regarding multiple clinically important outcomes. Conclusion: Current evidence does not support routine use of haloperidol or second-generation antipsychotics to treat delirium in adult inpatients.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85072887260&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85072887260&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.7326/M19-1860

DO - 10.7326/M19-1860

M3 - Review article

C2 - 31476770

AN - SCOPUS:85072887260

VL - 171

SP - 485

EP - 494

JO - Annals of Internal Medicine

JF - Annals of Internal Medicine

SN - 0003-4819

IS - 7

ER -