Anticonvulsant Efficacy in Sturge-Weber Syndrome

Emma H. Kaplan, Eric H. Kossoff, Catherine D. Bachur, Milton Gholston, Jihoon Hahn, Matthew Widlus, Anne M. Comi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Objective We analyzed individuals with epilepsy due to Sturge-Weber syndrome to determine which anticonvulsants provided optimal seizure control and which resulted in the fewest side effects. Methods One-hundred-eight records from a single center were retrospectively analyzed for Sturge-Weber syndrome brain involvement, epilepsy, Sturge-Weber syndrome neuroscores, and currently used anticonvulsants. Results Of the fourteen anticonvulsants that had been employed, the most often used agents were oxcarbazepine or carbamazepine, and levetiracetam. Individuals whose seizures at the most recent visit were fully controlled (seizure-free) for 6 months or longer were more likely to have ever tried, or currently used, oxcarbazepine or carbamazepine than those with uncontrolled seizures. Thirty-nine of 69 individuals (56.5%) were seizure-free with oxcarbazepine or carbamazepine history versus 11 of 35 individuals (31.4%) who had not taken these agents (P < 0.05); 38 of 62 patients (61.3%) were seizure-free while currently taking these anticonvulsants versus 12 of 42 (28.6%) not taking them (P < 0.01). Patients with seizure control for 6 months or longer were less likely to have ever tried, or to currently be taking, levetiracetam than those without control. Sixteen of 56 individuals (28.6%) were seizure-free with levetiracetam history versus 34 of 48 (70.8%) without it (P < 0.001); 14 of 43 individuals (32.6%) were seizure-free and currently taking levetiracetam versus 36 of 61 (59.0%) not taking it (P < 0.01). When topiramate was added as second-line medication, five of nine patients (55.6%) experienced decreased seizure severity, and worsening of glaucoma was not reported. Conclusions Carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine were associated with better seizure control than levetiracetam in this Sturge-Weber syndrome cohort and so may be preferred as the initial therapy. When used as adjunctive therapy, topiramate was effective in this limited analysis without a clear increased incidence of glaucoma.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)31-36
Number of pages6
JournalPediatric Neurology
Volume58
DOIs
StatePublished - May 1 2016

Keywords

  • Sturge-Weber syndrome
  • anticonvulsant
  • carbamazepine
  • epilepsy
  • levetiracetam
  • oxcarbazepine
  • side effects

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Neurology
  • Developmental Neuroscience
  • Clinical Neurology

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