Antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in patients with schizophrenia: A meta-analysis

E. Fuller Torrey, John J. Bartko, Zhao Rong Lun, Robert H Yolken

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Recent studies have linked infectious agents to schizophrenia. The largest number of studies has involved the analysis of Toxoplasma gondii; these studies were subjected to a meta-analysis. Published articles and abstracts were identified by searches of MEDLINE, Ovid, and Google Scholar; by a search of Chinese publications; through letters to researchers; and by visiting China. Published and unpublished controlled studies that used serological methods for measuring T. gondii antibodies to assess inpatients and/or outpatients diagnosed with schizophrenia were selected for analysis, and source documents were translated as needed. Forty-two studies carried out in 17 countries over 5 decades were identified; 23 of these (6 unpublished) met selection criteria. The combined odds ratio (OR) was 2.73 (95% confidence interval, 2.10 to 3.60; chi-square with 1 df 263; P

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)729-736
Number of pages8
JournalSchizophrenia Bulletin
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2007



  • Apicomplexa
  • Infection
  • Protozoa

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Neuroscience(all)

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