Antibodies against Angiotensin II Type 1 and Endothelin A Receptors: Relevance and pathogenicity

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Abstract

Antibodies against two G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) and endothelin A receptor (ETAR) are among a growing number of autoantibodies that are found to be associated with allograft dysfunction. AT1R antibodies (AT1Rabs) and ETAR antibodies (ETARabs) have been shown to activate their target receptors and affect signaling pathways. Multiple single center reports have shown an association between presence of these antibodies and acute or chronic rejection and graft loss in kidney, heart, liver, lung and composite tissue transplantations. However, the characteristics of patients that are most likely to develop adverse outcomes, the phenotypes associated with graft damage solely due to these antibodies, and the antibody titer required to cause dysfunction are areas that remain controversial. This review compiles existing knowledge on the effect of antibodies against GPCRs in other diseases in order to bridge the gap in knowledge within transplantation biology. Future areas for research are highlighted and include the need for functional assays and treatment protocols for transplant patients who present with AT1Rabs and ETARabs. Understanding how antibodies that activate GPCRs influence transplantation outcome will have direct clinical implications for preemptive evaluation of transplant candidates as well as the post-transplant care of organ recipients.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalHuman Immunology
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2019

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Endothelin A Receptors
Angiotensin II
Virulence
Antibodies
G-Protein-Coupled Receptors
Transplants
Angiotensin Type 1 Receptor
Transplantation
Tissue Transplantation
Graft Rejection
Clinical Protocols
Autoantibodies
Allografts
Phenotype
Kidney

Keywords

  • Allograft dysfunction
  • Angiotensin II type 1 receptor antibody
  • Endothelin A receptor antibody
  • Non-HLA antibodies

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology

Cite this

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title = "Antibodies against Angiotensin II Type 1 and Endothelin A Receptors: Relevance and pathogenicity",
abstract = "Antibodies against two G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) and endothelin A receptor (ETAR) are among a growing number of autoantibodies that are found to be associated with allograft dysfunction. AT1R antibodies (AT1Rabs) and ETAR antibodies (ETARabs) have been shown to activate their target receptors and affect signaling pathways. Multiple single center reports have shown an association between presence of these antibodies and acute or chronic rejection and graft loss in kidney, heart, liver, lung and composite tissue transplantations. However, the characteristics of patients that are most likely to develop adverse outcomes, the phenotypes associated with graft damage solely due to these antibodies, and the antibody titer required to cause dysfunction are areas that remain controversial. This review compiles existing knowledge on the effect of antibodies against GPCRs in other diseases in order to bridge the gap in knowledge within transplantation biology. Future areas for research are highlighted and include the need for functional assays and treatment protocols for transplant patients who present with AT1Rabs and ETARabs. Understanding how antibodies that activate GPCRs influence transplantation outcome will have direct clinical implications for preemptive evaluation of transplant candidates as well as the post-transplant care of organ recipients.",
keywords = "Allograft dysfunction, Angiotensin II type 1 receptor antibody, Endothelin A receptor antibody, Non-HLA antibodies",
author = "Philogene, {Mary Carmelle} and Tory Johnson and Arthur Vaught and Sammy Zakaria and Fedarko, {Neal S}",
year = "2019",
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T1 - Antibodies against Angiotensin II Type 1 and Endothelin A Receptors

T2 - Relevance and pathogenicity

AU - Philogene, Mary Carmelle

AU - Johnson, Tory

AU - Vaught, Arthur

AU - Zakaria, Sammy

AU - Fedarko, Neal S

PY - 2019/1/1

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N2 - Antibodies against two G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) and endothelin A receptor (ETAR) are among a growing number of autoantibodies that are found to be associated with allograft dysfunction. AT1R antibodies (AT1Rabs) and ETAR antibodies (ETARabs) have been shown to activate their target receptors and affect signaling pathways. Multiple single center reports have shown an association between presence of these antibodies and acute or chronic rejection and graft loss in kidney, heart, liver, lung and composite tissue transplantations. However, the characteristics of patients that are most likely to develop adverse outcomes, the phenotypes associated with graft damage solely due to these antibodies, and the antibody titer required to cause dysfunction are areas that remain controversial. This review compiles existing knowledge on the effect of antibodies against GPCRs in other diseases in order to bridge the gap in knowledge within transplantation biology. Future areas for research are highlighted and include the need for functional assays and treatment protocols for transplant patients who present with AT1Rabs and ETARabs. Understanding how antibodies that activate GPCRs influence transplantation outcome will have direct clinical implications for preemptive evaluation of transplant candidates as well as the post-transplant care of organ recipients.

AB - Antibodies against two G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) and endothelin A receptor (ETAR) are among a growing number of autoantibodies that are found to be associated with allograft dysfunction. AT1R antibodies (AT1Rabs) and ETAR antibodies (ETARabs) have been shown to activate their target receptors and affect signaling pathways. Multiple single center reports have shown an association between presence of these antibodies and acute or chronic rejection and graft loss in kidney, heart, liver, lung and composite tissue transplantations. However, the characteristics of patients that are most likely to develop adverse outcomes, the phenotypes associated with graft damage solely due to these antibodies, and the antibody titer required to cause dysfunction are areas that remain controversial. This review compiles existing knowledge on the effect of antibodies against GPCRs in other diseases in order to bridge the gap in knowledge within transplantation biology. Future areas for research are highlighted and include the need for functional assays and treatment protocols for transplant patients who present with AT1Rabs and ETARabs. Understanding how antibodies that activate GPCRs influence transplantation outcome will have direct clinical implications for preemptive evaluation of transplant candidates as well as the post-transplant care of organ recipients.

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