• Tuberculosis, particularly extensively drug resistant, or XDR-TB, is surging, and experts estimate 1.7 million deaths worldwide per year and 9.2 million new cases per year from TB, along with more than 2 billion people having latent infections. • Standard anti-TB therapy typically continues for six months and requires patients to take about one-third of a kilogram of a mixture of anti-TB drugs when administered daily. • While testing candidate TB drug regimens in mice is economical, reproducible, and popular, human clinical trials have not always matched the results from mice - a large moxifloxacin trial being a case in point. • Several biomarker technologies, including monitoring of mRNA and inflammatory response molecules as well as imaging with positron emission tomography and single-photon emission computed tomography, are under development to boost the speed and improve the reliability of testing anti-TB drug candidates.
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