Diarrhea is a relatively common complication of antibiotic use. Nearly all agents with an antibacterial spectrum of activity have been implicated, but ampicillin and clindamycin are perhaps the most frequent ones. The great majority of cases are enigmatic (“dysbiosis”) or caused by Clostridium difficile. Rare causes are Klebsiella or Staphylococcus aureus enterocolitis. Diagnostic studies Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea should be suspected in any patient who has diarrhea in association with antibiotic exposure. The most common inducing agents are clindamycin, oral quinolones, and cephalosporins, primarily second- and third-generation cephalosporins.
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