Purpose: To evaluate whether anti-inflammatory agents affect outcomes in patients receiving intravesical BCG therapy for high-grade (HG) non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). Methods: We reviewed the records of 203 patients in a prospective database of HG NMIBC from 2006 to 2012 at a single institution. Patients who had muscle-invasive disease (n = 32), low-grade pathology (n = 4), underwent early cystectomy within 3 months (n = 25), had <3 months of follow-up (n = 11), or did not receive an induction course of intravesical BCG (n = 32) were excluded. Clinicopathologic data were tabulated including demographics, comorbidities, pathologic stage and grades, intravesical therapy, and concomitant use of aspirin, NSAIDs, COX inhibitors, and statins. Multivariate Cox regression analysis explored predictive factors for recurrence, progression (stage progression or progression to cystectomy), cancer-specific survival (CSS), and overall survival (OS). Results: Ninety-nine patients with HG NMIBC who received at least one induction course of intravesical BCG were identified, with median follow-up of 31.4 months. There were 20 (20.2 %) deaths, including 6 (6.1 %) patients with bladder cancer-related mortality. 13 % patients experienced tumor progression and 27 % underwent cystectomy following failure of intravesical therapy. Anti-inflammatory use included statins (65 %), aspirin (63 %), or non-aspirin NSAIDs/COX inhibitors (26 %). Anti-inflammatory use was not significantly predictive of recurrence, progression, or mortality outcomes on Cox regression. CIS stage was associated with higher progression, while age, BMI, and Charlson score were independent predictors of overall mortality. Conclusion: Despite speculation of inhibitory effects on BCG immunomodulation there was no evidence that anti-inflammatory agents impacted oncologic outcomes in patients receiving BCG for HG NMIBC.
- Anti-inflammatory agents
- Intravesical therapy
- Non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer
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