Anthrax lethal and edema toxins produce different patterns of cardiovascular and renal dysfunction and synergistically decrease survival in canines

Daniel A. Sweeney, Xizhong Cui, Steven B. Solomon, David A. Vitberg, Thi S. Migone, Dara Scher, Robert L. Danner, Charles Natanson, G. Mani Subramanian, Peter Q. Eichacker

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: High mortality in the 2001 US and recent European anthrax outbreaks suggests that better understanding of the effects of the toxins produced by this bacterium is needed to improve treatment. Methods and results. Here, 24-h edema (ETx) and lethal (LeTx) toxin infusions were investigated for 96 h in sedated canines receiving mechanical ventilation. The initial study compared similarly lethal doses of ETx (n=8) or LeTx (n=15) alone. ETx was 24 times less lethal than LeTx, and the median time to death in nonsurvivors (n=6 and n=9, respectively) was shorter with ETx (42 vs 67 h; P=.04). Compared with controls (n=9), both toxins decreased arterial and central venous pressures and systemic vascular resistance and increased heart rate, cardiac index, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) level, creatinine (Cr) concentration, BUN:Cr ratio, and hepatic transaminase levels (P ≤ .05 for toxin effect or time interaction). However, ETx stimulated early diuresis, reduced serum sodium levels, and had more pronounced vasodilatory effects, compared with LeTx, as reflected by greater or earlier central venous pressures, systemic vascular resistance, and changes in the BUN:Cr ratio (P ≤ .01). LeTx progressively decreased the left ventricular ejection fraction (P ≤ .002). In a subsequent study, a lethal dose of LeTx with an equimolar nonlethal ETx dose (n=8) increased mortality, compared with LeTx alone (n=8; P=.05). Conclusions: Shock with ETx or LeTx may require differing supportive therapies, whereas toxin antagonists should likely target both toxins.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1885-1896
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Infectious Diseases
Volume202
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 15 2010

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Infectious Diseases

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Anthrax lethal and edema toxins produce different patterns of cardiovascular and renal dysfunction and synergistically decrease survival in canines'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this