Anesthetic requirement is increased in redheads

Edwin B. Liem, Chun Ming Lin, Mohammad Irfan Suleman, Anthony G. Doufas, Ronald G. Gregg, Jacqueline M. Veauthier, Gary Loyd, Daniel I. Sessler

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background: Age and body temperature alter inhalational anesthetic requirement; however, no human genotype is associated with inhalational anesthetic requirement. There is an anecdotal impression that anesthetic requirement is increased in redheads. Furthermore, red hair results from distinct mutations of the melanocortin-1 receptor. Therefore, the authors tested the hypothesis that the requirement for the volatile anesthetic desflurane is greater in natural redheaded than in dark-haired women. Methods: The authors studied healthy women with bright red (n = 10) or dark (n = 10) hair. Blood was sampled for subsequent analyses of melanocortin-1 receptor alleles. Anesthesia was induced with sevoflurane and maintained with desflurane randomly set at an end-tidal concentration between 5-5 and 7.5%. After an equilibration period, a noxious electrical stimulation (100 Hz, 70 mA) was transmitted through bilateral intra-dermal needles. If the volunteer moved in response to stimulation, desflurane was increased by 0.5%; otherwise, it was decreased by 0.5%. This was continued until volunteers "crossed over" from movement to nonmovement (or vice versa) four times. Individual logistic regression curves were used to determine desflurane requirement (P 50). Desflurane requirements in the two groups were compared using Mann-Whitney nonparametric two-sample test; P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The desflurane requirement in redheads (6.2 vol% [95% CI, 5.9-6.5]) was significantly greater than in dark-haired women (5.2 vol% [4.9-5.5]; P = 0.0004). Nine of 10 redheads were either homozygous or compound heterozygotes for mutations on the melanocortin-1 receptor gene. Conclusions: Red hair seems to be a distinct phenotype linked to anesthetic requirement in humans that can also be traced to a specific genotype.

LanguageEnglish (US)
Pages279-283
Number of pages5
JournalAnesthesiology
Volume101
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 2004
Externally publishedYes

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Anesthetics
Receptor, Melanocortin, Type 1
Hair
Volunteers
Genotype
Mutation
Heterozygote
Body Temperature
Electric Stimulation
Needles
desflurane
Anesthesia
Logistic Models
Alleles
Phenotype
Skin
Genes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine

Cite this

Liem, E. B., Lin, C. M., Suleman, M. I., Doufas, A. G., Gregg, R. G., Veauthier, J. M., ... Sessler, D. I. (2004). Anesthetic requirement is increased in redheads. Anesthesiology, 101(2), 279-283. DOI: 10.1097/00000542-200408000-00006

Anesthetic requirement is increased in redheads. / Liem, Edwin B.; Lin, Chun Ming; Suleman, Mohammad Irfan; Doufas, Anthony G.; Gregg, Ronald G.; Veauthier, Jacqueline M.; Loyd, Gary; Sessler, Daniel I.

In: Anesthesiology, Vol. 101, No. 2, 08.2004, p. 279-283.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Liem, EB, Lin, CM, Suleman, MI, Doufas, AG, Gregg, RG, Veauthier, JM, Loyd, G & Sessler, DI 2004, 'Anesthetic requirement is increased in redheads' Anesthesiology, vol. 101, no. 2, pp. 279-283. DOI: 10.1097/00000542-200408000-00006
Liem EB, Lin CM, Suleman MI, Doufas AG, Gregg RG, Veauthier JM et al. Anesthetic requirement is increased in redheads. Anesthesiology. 2004 Aug;101(2):279-283. Available from, DOI: 10.1097/00000542-200408000-00006
Liem, Edwin B. ; Lin, Chun Ming ; Suleman, Mohammad Irfan ; Doufas, Anthony G. ; Gregg, Ronald G. ; Veauthier, Jacqueline M. ; Loyd, Gary ; Sessler, Daniel I./ Anesthetic requirement is increased in redheads. In: Anesthesiology. 2004 ; Vol. 101, No. 2. pp. 279-283
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abstract = "Background: Age and body temperature alter inhalational anesthetic requirement; however, no human genotype is associated with inhalational anesthetic requirement. There is an anecdotal impression that anesthetic requirement is increased in redheads. Furthermore, red hair results from distinct mutations of the melanocortin-1 receptor. Therefore, the authors tested the hypothesis that the requirement for the volatile anesthetic desflurane is greater in natural redheaded than in dark-haired women. Methods: The authors studied healthy women with bright red (n = 10) or dark (n = 10) hair. Blood was sampled for subsequent analyses of melanocortin-1 receptor alleles. Anesthesia was induced with sevoflurane and maintained with desflurane randomly set at an end-tidal concentration between 5-5 and 7.5{\%}. After an equilibration period, a noxious electrical stimulation (100 Hz, 70 mA) was transmitted through bilateral intra-dermal needles. If the volunteer moved in response to stimulation, desflurane was increased by 0.5{\%}; otherwise, it was decreased by 0.5{\%}. This was continued until volunteers {"}crossed over{"} from movement to nonmovement (or vice versa) four times. Individual logistic regression curves were used to determine desflurane requirement (P 50). Desflurane requirements in the two groups were compared using Mann-Whitney nonparametric two-sample test; P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The desflurane requirement in redheads (6.2 vol{\%} [95{\%} CI, 5.9-6.5]) was significantly greater than in dark-haired women (5.2 vol{\%} [4.9-5.5]; P = 0.0004). Nine of 10 redheads were either homozygous or compound heterozygotes for mutations on the melanocortin-1 receptor gene. Conclusions: Red hair seems to be a distinct phenotype linked to anesthetic requirement in humans that can also be traced to a specific genotype.",
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AU - Lin,Chun Ming

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N2 - Background: Age and body temperature alter inhalational anesthetic requirement; however, no human genotype is associated with inhalational anesthetic requirement. There is an anecdotal impression that anesthetic requirement is increased in redheads. Furthermore, red hair results from distinct mutations of the melanocortin-1 receptor. Therefore, the authors tested the hypothesis that the requirement for the volatile anesthetic desflurane is greater in natural redheaded than in dark-haired women. Methods: The authors studied healthy women with bright red (n = 10) or dark (n = 10) hair. Blood was sampled for subsequent analyses of melanocortin-1 receptor alleles. Anesthesia was induced with sevoflurane and maintained with desflurane randomly set at an end-tidal concentration between 5-5 and 7.5%. After an equilibration period, a noxious electrical stimulation (100 Hz, 70 mA) was transmitted through bilateral intra-dermal needles. If the volunteer moved in response to stimulation, desflurane was increased by 0.5%; otherwise, it was decreased by 0.5%. This was continued until volunteers "crossed over" from movement to nonmovement (or vice versa) four times. Individual logistic regression curves were used to determine desflurane requirement (P 50). Desflurane requirements in the two groups were compared using Mann-Whitney nonparametric two-sample test; P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The desflurane requirement in redheads (6.2 vol% [95% CI, 5.9-6.5]) was significantly greater than in dark-haired women (5.2 vol% [4.9-5.5]; P = 0.0004). Nine of 10 redheads were either homozygous or compound heterozygotes for mutations on the melanocortin-1 receptor gene. Conclusions: Red hair seems to be a distinct phenotype linked to anesthetic requirement in humans that can also be traced to a specific genotype.

AB - Background: Age and body temperature alter inhalational anesthetic requirement; however, no human genotype is associated with inhalational anesthetic requirement. There is an anecdotal impression that anesthetic requirement is increased in redheads. Furthermore, red hair results from distinct mutations of the melanocortin-1 receptor. Therefore, the authors tested the hypothesis that the requirement for the volatile anesthetic desflurane is greater in natural redheaded than in dark-haired women. Methods: The authors studied healthy women with bright red (n = 10) or dark (n = 10) hair. Blood was sampled for subsequent analyses of melanocortin-1 receptor alleles. Anesthesia was induced with sevoflurane and maintained with desflurane randomly set at an end-tidal concentration between 5-5 and 7.5%. After an equilibration period, a noxious electrical stimulation (100 Hz, 70 mA) was transmitted through bilateral intra-dermal needles. If the volunteer moved in response to stimulation, desflurane was increased by 0.5%; otherwise, it was decreased by 0.5%. This was continued until volunteers "crossed over" from movement to nonmovement (or vice versa) four times. Individual logistic regression curves were used to determine desflurane requirement (P 50). Desflurane requirements in the two groups were compared using Mann-Whitney nonparametric two-sample test; P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The desflurane requirement in redheads (6.2 vol% [95% CI, 5.9-6.5]) was significantly greater than in dark-haired women (5.2 vol% [4.9-5.5]; P = 0.0004). Nine of 10 redheads were either homozygous or compound heterozygotes for mutations on the melanocortin-1 receptor gene. Conclusions: Red hair seems to be a distinct phenotype linked to anesthetic requirement in humans that can also be traced to a specific genotype.

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