Purpose: To quantify tumor anatomic change of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients given passive-scattering proton therapy (PSPT) and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) through 6-7 weeks of treatment, and analyze the correlation between anatomic change and the need to adopt adaptive radiotherapy (ART). Materials and methods: Weekly 4D CT sets of 32 patients (8/8 IMRT with/without ART, 8/8 PSPT with/without ART) acquired during treatment, were registered to the planning CT using an in-house developed deformable registration algorithm. The anatomic change was quantified as the mean variation of the region of interest (ROI) relative to the planning CT by averaging the magnitude of deformation vectors of all voxels within the ROI contour. Mean variations of GTV and CTV were compared between subgroups classified by ART status and treatment modality using the independent t-test. Logistic regression analysis was performed to clarify the effect of anatomic change on the probability of ART adoption. Results: There was no significant difference (p = 0.679) for the time-averaged mean CTV variations from the planning CT between IMRT (7.61 ± 2.80 mm) and PSPT (7.21 ± 2.67 mm) patients. However, a significant difference (p = 0.001) was observed between ART (8.93 ± 2.19 mm) and non-ART (5.90 ± 2.33 mm) patients, when treatment modality was not considered. Mean CTV variation from the planning CT in all patients increases significantly (p < 0.001), with a changing rate of 1.77 mm per week. Findings for the GTV change was similar. The logistic regression model correctly predicted 71.9% of cases in ART adoption. The correlation is stronger in the PSPT group with a pseudo R2 value of 0.782, compared to that in the IMRT group (pseudo R2 = 0.182). Conclusion: The magnitude of target volume variation over time could be greater than the usual treatment margin. Mean target volume variation from the planning position can be used to identify lung cancer patients that may need ART.
- Adaptive therapy
- Anatomic change
- Proton therapy
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging